Education in Pakistan: Are the Articles 25A and 37(b) Closing the Gender Gap in KP Province?
This study aims to analyze the effectiveness of articles 25A and 37(b) in closing the gender gap in Pakistan's KP province. This stated Article explains the right to free and compulsory education up to the secondary level. The literature review has shown that two types of factors can affect achieving the goals defined by articles 25A and 37(b). Article 25A provides constitutional efforts to provide free and compulsory education in the chapter of fundamental rights. Article 37(b) enjoined the respective institutions' obligation to remove illiteracy and provide free and compulsory education to the secondary level within the minimum possible period. Clause (f) of the same Article declares how the State will enable Pakistani citizens to participate in national life through education. These claims were named as "efforts." The efforts are under human control. Some factors act against these stated efforts, known as "circumstances," which are natural and out of human control, such as gender gaps, poverty, Pashtunwali culture, etc. In Pakistan, the "efforts" are made to achieve the stated Articles' targets. Still, no policy was developed to answer the "circumstances." This attitude extends hurdles in educating KP girls. Suggestions were made to eradicate these "circumstances" entirely or partially to the extent possible. If these "circumstances" were removed, the girls' ratio of gross enrolment rate would be at least at a high level as boys, and thus the vision explained by the stated Articles can be achieved.