Syrian Imbroglio: A Complex Interaction of Local, Regional, and Extra-Regional Actors

  • Prof. Dr. Muhammad Ahmed Qadri Dean, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences, University of Karachi
  • Muhammad Saeed Uzzaman PhD Scholar, National University of Modern Languages Islamabad
  • Sajid Iqbal Lecturer, Department of International Relations, National University of Modern Languages, Islamabad
Keywords: Civil War, Regional Actors, Local Actors, International Actors, Sunni, Shiite


This study provides an overview of the complex nature of the functioning of the Syrian conflict concerning the involvement of various actors (state and non-state actors) at the national, regional, and extra-regional levels. The main goal of the study is to analyze and identify the various political actors involved in the conflict, their roles, and strategies based on the convergence and divergence of their strategic interests. The research follows a qualitative approach and uses document analysis as a technique to collect and further analyze the data. It turned out that the political actors involved in this conflict can be divided into three groups; status quo forces, anti-status quo forces, and non-aligned forces. Further, the role of the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS) has become a distinctive subject of the conflict, because it fights almost with all other parties to the conflict, including the pro-Assad regime, as well as the forces against Assad. It is important to note that Israel which is one of the important players in regional geopolitics; initially expressed neutrality, but as the conflict unfolded it indulged in the conflict to counter the growing influence of Iran and the ISIS factor in the region. The study predicts that the complex functioning of the Syrian conflict involving various states and non-state actors will further complicate, and the violence is likely to continue shortly.

How to Cite
Prof. Dr. Muhammad Ahmed Qadri, Muhammad Saeed Uzzaman, & Sajid Iqbal. (2021). Syrian Imbroglio: A Complex Interaction of Local, Regional, and Extra-Regional Actors. Research Journal of Social Sciences and Economics Review, 2(2), 76-86.