Research Journal of Social Sciences and Economics Review 2022-06-26T11:56:10+00:00 Muhammad Idris Open Journal Systems <p><iframe src="" width="100%" height="4550"> </iframe></p> Putting Transitivity to the Test: A Stylistic Analysis of Edward Lowbury’s Poem “The Huntsman” 2022-06-26T11:55:36+00:00 Amina Dr. Husnat Ahmed Mr. Jamil Akhtar <p><em>The basic aim of this paper is to stylistically analyze Edward Lowbury’s poem “The Huntsman” from the point of view of Halliday’s transitivity (1985, 1994, 2004, 2014) model. As transitivity is a grammatical feature and is considered the basic approach of stylistics (analysis); the ideational, textual and the interpersonal facets are the major functions of the language. There are six processes of the system of transitivity. This analysis will be beneficial for understanding the mental, verbal and material processes of transitivity model used by the poet in his poem. As the theme of the poem is that we should think before speaking, so this research is helpful to analyze the style and structure of Edward Lowbury’s poetry and different concepts to convey and fortify this concept. Themes and views are conveyed by the poet through different stylistic techniques and devices.</em></p> 2022-03-31T06:08:42+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Research Journal of Social Sciences and Economics Review A Study on Training Needs of Data Driven Decision Making For Public Sector Secondary School Administrators 2022-06-26T11:56:06+00:00 Dr. Sarwat Maqbool Syed Afzal Mahmood Ansa Nighat Iqbal <p><em>Data Driven Decision Making (DDDM) is a tool of management. No Child Left behind Act of 2001 asked to introduce data driven decision making, accountability, collaboration and autonomy in schools to improve school education. In Pakistan, the educational administrators are not trained in data driven decision making. This training requires essential knowledge and skill of data driven decision making process. It also requires conviction on the part of school administrator and teachers for school improvement. They are required to think it in the stream of their professional responsibility Present &nbsp;&nbsp;study is&nbsp; about&nbsp; Training Needs of Data Driven Decision Making for public sector secondary&nbsp; School Administrators” was carried out to know about the practices and training needs&nbsp; of data driven decision making of the public sector secondary school administrators of district Gujrat. An instrument was developed carrying 44 statements under five factors i.e.1. Use o f data. 2. School policy. 3. Professional development. 4. School organizational operation. 5. Collaboration with community. There are 271 schools in public sector at secondary level (boys and girls) in district Gujrat. The schools were randomly chosen and questionnaires were distributed and collected back. The data was analyzed on SPSS-16 with the help of Likert type scale. This scale carries 1-5 points as its value. The conclusions were drawn in relevance with objectives. The results illustrated that public sector school administrators were unable to provide technology, make databases, use spread sheets to analyze and draw conclusions on scientific basis. They helped to change the attitude of faculty toward data use in schools but unable to change their beliefs as it is a long process. The resource crunch hinders professional development, instructional and curriculum changes which badly affect school efficiency. The results unwrapped that the public sector school administrators abhorred outreach to community which may improve a school. Keeping in view the results of conclusion it is suggested that orientation and training of public sector school administrators are very much needed but it may be launched and managed by provincial education authority.</em></p> 2022-03-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Research Journal of Social Sciences and Economics Review Exploring the ESL Students’ Metacognitive Awareness about Reading Strategies Inventory in Pakistani Context 2022-06-26T11:55:58+00:00 Azhar Pervaiz Faria Shahzadi Faheem Arshad <p><em>The main aim of this study is to find out the methods through which learners learn and further to find out the phenomenon that how learning and cognition work to increase better learning skills. Research shows that Meta Cognition (MC) is an influential soothsayer of acquisition. In this study, the researchers examined the effects of thinking techniques on students' learning performance and for this purpose Metacognitive&nbsp;focus&nbsp;of&nbsp;analyzing&nbsp;techniques&nbsp;inventory (MARSI) along with a reading comprehension test is carried out. A sample comprising of the students at schools (N = 291) was randomly selected from a cluster of the Pakistani population. The researchers selected the students of Elementary level from different schools of Pakistan including English medium and Urdu medium as a target population and divided the population into different clusters on the basis of provincial, district, and tehsil level. The study provided the basis for the validity of MARSI in the Pakistani context and at the first step, the researchers implemented the MARSI test, and at the second stage, the Reading Comprehension test was conducted. The analyses show a strong positive correlation between Reading strategies and Metacognitive techniques awareness among the students. The study further helps and guides the researchers to implement additional studies to get benefits from these strategies in the classroom setting, learning, and training of the students. Awareness about consciousness and its implications in the classroom will be a nourishing régime for the brains of the learners. Not only do the learners get benefits from it, but it also helps for the development of curriculum at all levels of school students.</em></p> 2022-03-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Research Journal of Social Sciences and Economics Review Impact of Conditional Cash Transfer (CCT) Incentive Program for Improving Girls Education in District Swat (Pakistan) 2022-06-26T11:56:02+00:00 Dr. Sarwat Maqbool Mrs. Ishrat Mrs. Aisha Khaliq <p><em>The major objectives of the study were to find out the impact of conditional cash transfer incentive programme for the improvement of girls education in Swat district as well as to identifying &nbsp;causes of low enrolment and To what extent the incentive (stipend money) helpful in increase of female enrolment? Was there any change occurred with this CCT incentive programme. Mix method was used in this study the data were collected through questionnaire from the respondents (teachers and head teachers). They were also asked strong areas and weak areas regarding stipend money program through open ended questions. Research tool was validated through expert opinion. Two PhD teachers from faculty of education and three senior head teachers from district Swat validated the tool. They gave their opinion to rephrase and delete some items as they were not much relevant to the study. Pilot was run and Cronbach`s alpha value was .8731 as a whole. It was acceptable for data collection. The data were gathered and the results were quantified by using percentage, mean and SD. Sample size was comprises on 60 high school teachers20 high school heads. Finding of the study shows respondents (teachers and head teachers) suggested that there should be proper monitoring and evaluation process for the transparency. Thirty three percent (33%) teachers and sixty three percent (63%) head teachers recommended that stipend should be given to poor and position holder students, and stipend provision should be based on equity rather than equality. Overall such incentive programmes have a great impact on improvement of girls education and increases of girls enrolment at secondary level in the backward areas where girls education ratio is very low. </em></p> 2022-03-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Research Journal of Social Sciences and Economics Review Organizational Commitment and Perceived Leadership Style among Public Servants 2022-06-26T11:56:10+00:00 Sanaullah Aman Prof. Dr. Mohammad Umer Sehrish Aslam <p><em>Pakistan is experiencing a political and economic crisis that has never been seen before. For this reason, to improve the performance of the public sector and limit the crisis' repercussions, public managers who are dedicated and successful are needed. Also, no work has been done yet from the perspective of Pakistan's public servants’ perceptions to enhance the value of “leadership” in establishing “organizational commitment”. This study uses the “Leader-Member Exchange (LMX)” function as a mediator to examine the correlation between ‘leadership styles’ and ‘organizational commitment in the workplace. A sample of 100 middle managers from six public administrations in Pakistan, including “Capital Development Authority (CDA), Islamabad Electric Supply Company Limited (IESCO), Sui Northern Gas Pipelines Limited (SNGPL), National Database and Registration Authority (NADRA), Pakistan International Airlines (PIA), and Capital Hospital”, were surveyed online. Leadership styles were examined using multiple regression analysis and linear regression. The results showed a positive relationship exists between commitment to one’s organization and both Bass styles. Aside from that, the results also revealed that LMX, as a mediator, did not show the correlation between ‘transformational leadership’ and one’s commitment to the organization, yet it mediated between ‘transactional leadership’ and ‘organizational commitment’. Therefore, developing organizational commitment depends on leadership styles, and this research helps organizations understand those mechanisms. It also has ramifications for recruitment and training programs in the public service.</em></p> 2022-03-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Research Journal of Social Sciences and Economics Review Impact of Facilitated Mentoring on Practices and Attributes of Science Teachers: Empirical Evidence from Primary School Context 2022-06-26T11:55:40+00:00 Muhammad Amin Humera Amin Fahd Naveed Kauser <p><em>The study aims to investigate the impact of facilitated mentoring on science teachers’ practices and attributes in primary schools. The paper also focuses to examine the difference of facilitated mentoring perceived effect on primary science teachers’ practices and attributes with regards to gender and sector. The primary school science teachers from public and private schools of Johar Town, Lahore were included in the population. The sample size consisted of 200 science teachers, out of which 100 were from public and 100 were from private primary schools. Further, 88 were male and 112 were female. This research implies quantitative method, data was collected using structured questionnaire based on five key factors to check perceived effect of facilitated mentoring on the primary school science teachers’ practices and attributes. The results showed that facilitated mentoring has moderate effect on the attribute and practices of science teachers. The effect of facilitated mentoring on the science teachers’ practice of ‘Modeling’ in private and public primary schools is significantly different. Further, the effect of facilitated mentoring on the science teachers’ practice of ‘Modeling’ with reference to gender is significantly different. It is suggested that the teachers’ facilitated mentorship program needs to be thoroughly examined and improved to make it effective, so that it could influence the science teachers’ practices and attributes. This may in turn influence the students’ performance positively along with improving the school performance.</em></p> 2022-03-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Research Journal of Social Sciences and Economics Review Research Culture Prevailing in Public Sector Universities of Punjab: A Qualitative Perspective 2022-06-26T11:55:44+00:00 Samreen Jalal Muhammad Amin Humera Amin <p><em>Research culture is comprised of behaviors and beliefs of individuals that help in conducting research activities. Present study aimed to find out the present situation of research culture in Public Sector Universities of Punjab. Qualitative research approach was employed for exploring the views of faculty members about existing condition of research culture in public sector universities of Punjab. Population of this study was comprised of all the faculty members of 18 general public sector universities of Punjab. Convenient method of sampling was used for selection of 7 general public sector universities and purposive method of sampling was applied for selecting the faculty members of these universities as a sample. Interviews were conducted from the faulty members till saturation. Tool of research was semi-structured interview protocol. Themes from interviews were drawn out and interpretation of interviews was also described. The results of the study indicated that the situation of research culture was worst and a lot of indicators responsible for creating such type of situation in public universities. At the end, certain recommendations were presented.</em></p> 2022-03-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Research Journal of Social Sciences and Economics Review Leader Member Exchange Differentiation affect on Task Performance of Out- Group Employee: A Sequential Mediated Model 2022-06-26T11:55:48+00:00 Shazia Akhtar Muhammad Faisal Malik Qurat Ul Ain Burhan <p><em>The current study was conducted with the aim to identify the impact of Leader Member Exchange Differentiation on Task performance of the followers with the sequential mediation of Admiration and positive form of envy i.e. Benign Envy. It is the covering the important element of leader member dyads specifically the members categorized as the out-group. Positivism research philosophy was adopted, followed by deductive approach. Survey method was used and sample was collected from the public sector universities. 219 sample was collected and used to test the results by using purposive sampling techniques. SEM techniques were applied to test the sequential mediation followed through structured and path model. The results suggested that there is a negative but significant relationship between Leader Member Exchange differentiation and Admiration. However, Benign Envy have positive significant relationship with task performance of out- group employees. The research reported some interesting future research areas to record the overall impact of LMXD on positive and negative behavior of followers.</em></p> 2022-03-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Research Journal of Social Sciences and Economics Review Maxwell Leadership Levels of HOD’s at the Universities of Pakistan 2022-06-26T11:55:52+00:00 Beenish Irshad Bhatti Dr. Aishah Siddiquah Dr. Iram Irshad Bhatti <p><em>This research study deals with the identification of leadership levels of HOD’s at university level to determine the kind of leaders currently working in Pakistani Universities. This study points out where majority of our educational leadership stand in the current scenario. This study was conducted upon 100 HODS from five Public and five Private universities. The sample &nbsp;was provided with Maxwell’s leadership questionnaire which determines the level of a leader. The questionnaire was filled by the leaders. This study provided an insight into leadership levels present in Pakistani Universities. The findings of the study clearly show that majority of our leaders are at level 3 of Maxwell’s leadership questionnaire which is production. This ultimately, indicating that we are producing leaders whose main goal is to accomplish the task and do not focus much on collective organizational development. There is a great amount of effort which is needed to train better leaders so that employees and organizations share collective benefits in order to grow together.</em></p> 2022-03-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Research Journal of Social Sciences and Economics Review