Research Journal of Social Sciences and Economics Review 2023-02-04T03:56:39+00:00 Muhammad Idris Open Journal Systems <p><iframe src="" width="100%" height="4550"> </iframe></p> Research Supervision at a Private University in Lahore: An Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis of Students’ Lived Experiences 2023-01-24T03:35:23+00:00 Mahwish Iqbal Dr. Yaar Muhammad Tayyaba Khalid <p><em>This study explores research students’ perspectives on</em> <em>research supervision, employing phenomenological methods and collecting data through homogenous sampling, and interviewing research students who had been working on their research work for more than six months. The study was restricted to four research students in an education department at a private university in Lahore due to time and resource limitations. By using a semi-structured interview guide and telephonic calls, students’ responses were recorded. All participants provided rich data about the approaches to supervision. The analysis of the data revealed that most of the supervisors were using different approaches to supervision and provided support for project management, attaining resources, and directing the supervisors toward their tasks under appropriate guidance. Most research students also reported that their supervisors helped them in locating resources, updated them regarding conferences, critically evaluated their work through cross-questioning, and provided them with timely and appropriate feedback to elevate their expertise level. Few research students gave responses regarding the non-availability of feedback as they asserted that their supervisor is not approachable, and they blamed them for their less interaction.</em></p> 2022-11-21T09:23:05+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Research Journal of Social Sciences and Economics Review Education: Developing a Counter Hegemony against the Terrorist Ideology 2023-01-24T03:35:12+00:00 Ahmreen Malik Dr. Shagufta Begum <p><em>This article aimed to analyze Antonio Gramsci's concepts of Cultural Hegemony and Counter Hegemony in the context of Terrorist Ideology and the US War on Terrorism. Using qualitative&nbsp; analysis, it was examined how educational institutions play a pivotal role in enforcing or preventing an ideology from penetrating public life and changing its course in a war for hegemony. Violent ideologies seep through societies and push them into chaos. The war on terrorism is an effort to establish US hegemony. Gramsci's philosophy of passive revolution can be used to eradicate extremist beliefs and cultural and social tensions within society. The term "indoctrination" has a negative connotation attached to it. Still, it can be used in a very positive way to ingrain impartiality and democratic values in the minds of our youth. The conclusion drawn from this research showed that education based on political awareness is required to unmask the hegemonic narratives that sustain inequities and violence. Counter-hegemony can teach young minds to accept the plurality of perspectives reflected by fellow humans with an open heart and mind. It further proved that Pakistan needs to develop a counter-hegemony or a Passive Revolution to fight the threat of religion-based violence.</em></p> 2022-11-21T09:33:48+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Research Journal of Social Sciences and Economics Review Assessment Challenges Faced by Technical Vocational Education (TVET) Stakeholders in Pakistan: Stakeholders’ Perspectives 2023-01-24T03:35:02+00:00 Gouhar Pirzada Dr. Yaar Muhammad Dr. Aisha Mahmood <p><em>In the modern developmental era, the role of highly trained individuals in national development has become crucially important, but it is also an undeniable reality that Pakistan’s shortage of highly qualified workers is growing. Technical Vocational Education and Training (TVET) was established to prepare a skilled workforce for various industries and sectors in Pakistan; however, the 60 percent level of young, unskilled, and semi-skilled labor emerging is mainly attributable to the failure of TVET to meet the country’s needs for the trained workforce for the economy.</em><em> This paper aims to develop an understanding of Pakistani NVQ stakeholders’ perspectives on current assessment issues, effective implementation of assessments, and potential roles and responsibilities of related stakeholders</em>.<em> This article examines the assessment challenges encountered by TVET stakeholders in Pakistan. This study’s primary objective is to understand Pakistani NVQ stakeholders’ perspectives on current assessment issues, the effective implementation of assessments, and the potential roles and responsibilities of related stakeholders. By adopting a qualitative research design, the data were collected from 40 TVET stakeholders working in different positions in TVET sectors.. The findings from this study highlighted six main challenges that are: </em><em>difficulty in managing professional courses, internal/external trainers’ problems, implementation of CBT as a challenge, industrial-related challenges, language problems, and student competencies as a challenge. Each one of these is discussed in detail.</em></p> 2022-11-21T09:47:07+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Research Journal of Social Sciences and Economics Review Why Interfaith Harmony? How is it Possible? (Challenges and Prospects in Interfaith Dialogue in Pakistan) 2023-01-24T03:34:52+00:00 Dr Ali Raza Tahir Zainab Ali ZAINABALI.ALVI9@GMAIL.COM <p><em>Almighty Allah is the absolute creator. He is the creator of good. A human being is the masterpiece of His creation. He blessed human beings with reason, aesthetics, and ethics. This is the uniqueness of a human being that among all His creations only a human being has these three core characteristics with a balance. These basic and fundamental potentials develop and nourish only in peace. Love is the gateway to peace. Every human being has the right to choose a way of life. A being may have a religion or may not. Nobody has the right to compel anybody to adopt or accept or deny any religion. Compulsion is against the dignity and integrity of a human being. Diversity is not bad but the exploitation of diversity and differences for vested interests is a curse. The aim of a religion is to provide peace and tranquility. But unfortunately, it has been made a source of restlessness, terror, and fear. These days, approximately 8 billion people on this globe are resting on the heap of nuclear weapons. Religion is the most powerful factor in influencing the masses. Spreading hate in the name of religion is the most terrible phenomenon all over the world. By having a deep and keen understanding of the background, challenges, and prospects of interfaith dialogue and harmony in Pakistan, we will be able to serve humankind. This article is an effort to search out solid grounds for interfaith dialogue and harmony.</em></p> 2022-11-22T07:37:45+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Research Journal of Social Sciences and Economics Review Anemia and its Causes among Children in District Dir Lower Applying Ranked Set Sampling Method for Data Collection 2023-01-24T03:34:42+00:00 Dr. Zahid Khan Asadullah Arshad Ali <p><em>The present study estimated the incidence and risk factors of anemia among children in District Dir Lower, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Pakistan. Population of this study was the children who studying in primary schools. Two-stage cluster ranked set sampling method was used to identify the representative sample from the population. Schools were considered as clusters from which five schools were selected randomly. Then, from each selected school 20 children were selected for taking information. Finally, 100 children consisting 57 male and 43 male subjects were selected. Data were collected using structure questionnaire from the respondents. Anemia was diagnosed using recommended standard method. The anemia prevalence was 65% in both male/female children. While 66.7% male and 62.3% female were anemic in the study area. In order to find the significant risk factors of anemia in the study area, logistic regression model was estimated. The model shows that gender, malaria, family income and stunting were significantly affecting the prevalence of anemia. The study concluded that high percentage primary school children were anemic. Awareness in parents is vital regarding risk factors of anaemia.</em></p> 2022-11-22T07:56:57+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Research Journal of Social Sciences and Economics Review Investigating the Expected Relationship between Online Teaching Effectiveness and Students’ Academic Achievements at the University Level 2023-01-24T03:34:31+00:00 Misbah Ijaz Dr. Shazia Malik Muhammad Amjad Javaid <p><em>The aim of the study is to investigate the expected correlation (relationship) of online teaching effectiveness with students’ academic achievements at the university level. The study's main objective was to find out the relationship between online teaching effectiveness and student learning achievement in an online-based learning environment at the university level. The research design was quantitative and the methodology was a survey study in nature. The population was all students from Public and Private Universities in Punjab. The sample was chosen through simple random sampling techniques from four universities. The sample size was [n=200]. The research instrument was utilized to gather statistical information from the participants (100 Male and 100 Females).&nbsp; Data were analyzed statistically, and inferentially. Data were interpreted accordingly. The findings of the study showed that medium correlation of online teaching effectiveness with students’ academic achievement in online-based learning environments at a higher level.</em></p> 2022-11-23T08:01:56+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Research Journal of Social Sciences and Economics Review Training Evaluation Models: Comparative Analysis 2023-02-03T03:57:47+00:00 Mr. Shahid Ali Dr. Muhammad Tufail Dr. Rashida Qazi <p><em>The descriptive research study aims at evaluating various training evaluation models found in practice with a view to draw a comparative analyses. Training evaluation models are methodically organized systematic frameworks for examining and evaluating the usefulness of training of employees, groups or organizations.&nbsp;The study described and evaluated training evaluation models including; Hamblin Five Levels Framework, Context-Input-Reaction-Output (CIRO) model, Bushnell input–process–output&nbsp;(IPO) Model, and Kirkpatrick training evaluation models. An in-depth analyses of all of the selected models were undertaken and its pros and cons were identified followed by their comparison with each other. The study analyses found Kirkpatrick training evaluation better in application because of its key advantages. Despite few of its limitations, the model ‘s acceptance as better one is accredited to its easy to use procedure, flexible adaptability across variety of industries and most comprehensive among all.</em></p> 2022-11-23T08:21:33+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Research Journal of Social Sciences and Economics Review Investigating the Relationship between HRM Practices and Employee Green Behaviour 2023-02-03T03:57:37+00:00 Tauqeer Hussain Hakro Mehtab Begum Siddiqui Ashfaque Ali Banbhan <p><em>This study investigated the relationship between HRM practices and employee green behavior. Primary data obtained by close-ended questionnaire based on 7-point Likert scale. 109 questionnaires distributed among managers and non-managers working in private banks of Sindh, Pakistan, out of which 100 questionnaires considered fit for data analysis and interpretation. Data obtained through snow-ball sampling and data analysis and interpretation were done by Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) and Partial Least Square-Structural Equation Modelling (PLS-SEM). The overall study was based on eight research objectives which were accomplished by developing and testing eight hypotheses. Since, three hypotheses tested negative and insignificant. However, remaining five hypotheses tested positive and significant. Recruitment &amp; selection tested positive and significant with task related employee green behavior and pro-active employee green behavior. However, training &amp; development tested positive and significant with pro-active employee green behavior and negative and insignificant with task related employee green behavior. Similarly, performance appraisal tested positive and significant with pro-active employee green behavior and negative and insignificant with task related employee green behavior. Likewise, compensation tested positive and significant with pro-active employee green behavior and negative and insignificant with task related employee green behavior. </em></p> 2022-11-28T06:52:37+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Research Journal of Social Sciences and Economics Review Teachers’ Perspectives on Strategies for Effective Classroom Management: A Qualitative Inquiry 2023-02-03T03:57:27+00:00 Dr. Iqbal Ahmad Dr. Farah Deeba Khalil Ur Rehman <p><em>Classroom is a place where students interact and socialize which is one of the major goals of education. Although, literature provides ample evidence regarding positive correlation between maximized students’ learning outcomes and effective classroom management. However, there are several issues and challenges that teachers face during classroom teaching which need to be addressed. This study aimed to explore effective strategies for classroom management at high schools. For this purpose, data were collected from 15 high school teachers in District Lower Dir, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan. Using a case study approach, data were collected from the teachers through semi-structured interviews. Based on thematic analysis, the collected data were analyzed. The findings of the study discovered seven key strategies for effective classroom management such as setting rules and routines, developing student interest, acknowledging appropriate behaviour, building cooperative and friendly environment, proper seating arrangements, interactive teaching techniques and fostering sense of collaboration. The study has some generalizability limitations. Hence, further studies are recommended to validate these findings in another context.</em></p> 2022-12-07T09:29:18+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Research Journal of Social Sciences and Economics Review The Role of Teacher-students Relationship in Students’ Academic Growth and Performance 2023-02-03T03:57:17+00:00 Amir Hafeez Malik Unaiza Khudai Abdul Rashid <p><em>The present study is aimed to trace out the role of teacher-students relationship in academic growth and performance of the students. The main objective of the study is to see what sort of student-teacher relation is being practiced in our ELT classrooms in the universities of the South Punjab. The data was collected through questionnaire and follow up interviews from students studying English language in Public and Private Universities of South Punjab. The responses were collected from 171 male and female students of undergraduate classes. The findings of the present study reveal that 76.6% population of the students is well aware of the strong and effective impact of student-teacher on their academic growth and performance. While 23.4% population is not aware of the importance of the student- teacher’s relationship and neither this population counted the role of student- teacher relationship in improving the quality and academic performance in the classrooms. Thus, the present study suggests that it is necessary for both the student and teachers to pay special attention in improving the student-teacher relationship. The student-teacher relationship functions as a bridge for carrying out the academic process effectively. The more the student-teacher relation is ignored in classroom, the more academic performance is affected one.</em></p> 2022-12-10T13:51:14+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Research Journal of Social Sciences and Economics Review Development of Critical Thinking Skills among Secondary Level Students through Constructivist Approach 2023-02-03T03:57:08+00:00 Mateen Iqbal Mushtaq Ahmad Ahmad Bilal Cheema <p><em>The purpose of the research was to find out the impact of 7E instructional model of constructivist approach on ability of secondary level students to think critically in the subject of physics. The research design was quasi experimental. The current study's population included both male and female participants of 10<sup>th</sup> grade science students’ studying physics in public secondary schools in Sargodha district. Multistage random sampling procedure was adopted in selection of two sections of science students from each of two public secondary schools, of Sargodha and randomly assigned as control and experimental groups. A critical thinking test in physics with reliability coefficient 0.85 was used as pre and post-test; t-test and ANOVA was used for data analysis. Results were that 7E instructional model had significant effects on students’ ability to think critically in Physics. Performance of male and female students of experimental groups in critical thinking test in physics was better than male and female students of control groups. It is suggested that pre-service and in-service teachers’ training academy like QAED may include 7E teaching style into teachers’ training with practical steps.</em></p> 2022-12-11T14:00:10+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Research Journal of Social Sciences and Economics Review Have to Create: Animators’ Choices, Challenges and Constrains in Pakistan 2023-02-03T03:56:59+00:00 Dr. Suffi Bilal Khalid <p><em>The impetus of culture, society, economy, and politics as part of the broader system has an impact on how we comprehend, interpret, and judge animation. Animators in Pakistan are faced with problems and constraints when creating animated films. Twelve in-depth interviews were conducted to investigate these obstacles and constraints. Consumerism, a Eurocentric art history curriculum, a lack of leadership, a naive beholder, the propaganda machine, and government supervision are the key issues animators are confronted with. The study recommends that three factors are critical for both the art teacher and the art student, from an academic standpoint. The first is a grasp of visual theory, the second is how visual literacy is taught and how visual perception develops through time in both children and adults, and the third is how animation, as a visual culture, makes meaning.</em></p> 2022-12-15T10:15:32+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Research Journal of Social Sciences and Economics Review Effects of Tongue Twisters on the Pronunciation of Elementary Students 2023-02-03T03:56:49+00:00 Riffat Shaheen Dr. Rabia Tabassum Dr. Muhammad Naheemullah <p><em>In contexts where English is utilized as a Second&nbsp;or a Foreign Language, pronunciation in having read has become a major problem for teaching staff of English as a Foreign or second language.&nbsp;The purpose of the study was to examine how tongue twisters effected elementary school students' pronunciation development of the English language. The study's goal was to determine how tongue twisters effected the development of English pronunciation. In order to achieve the aim, the null hypothesis that there is no discernible difference between the mean scores of the control group and the experimental group on the enhancement of English language pronunciation of elementary pupils was investigated. The study sample consisted of a total of 30 fifth-grade pupils. For&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; the conduction of study pretest- posttest experimental equivalent group research design was used. The acquired data was analyzed to determine the pupils' performance using statistical tools including mean, standard deviation, and t-test. The study's findings showed that the tongue twister approach had a considerable impact on pupils' performance. This study is&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; significant for curriculum developers, teachers, students and other researchers.</em></p> 2022-12-17T13:48:44+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Research Journal of Social Sciences and Economics Review Matricide and Other Crimes against Mother Nature: Earth as a Non-human Witness of Ecological and Environmental Degradation in Agha’s A Tale So Strange 2023-02-03T03:56:39+00:00 Muhammad Qasim Tahir Alam Awan <p><em>In our contemporary times, human life faces great existential threat resulting from serious environmental issues. In such situation, Ecocriticism has emerged gaining momentum owing to its main focus on relationship between man and nature as well as literature and environment. So, this study aims to explore ecocritical perspectives in Wazir Agha’s long narrative poem A Tale So Strange (1998) which is, indeed, a strange tale of ecological disaster and environmental degradation caused by man’s own lust and paranoia of power, progress and materialistic development. As man himself raised this war against Mother Nature and started violence and other crimes, he stands as a tyrant and nature as a victim. So, this study further focuses on the validity and authenticity of nature’s capacity to narrate its own tale in case of man’s being at the opposite side. Earth is seen as a valid witness of all that violence in Agha’s A Tale So Strange (1998). So, this exploration of ecocritical perspectives along with focus on nonhuman witness may strengthen the cause of ecocritics and environmentalists who are trying to plead nature’s case to save its environment for the survival of life. Moreover, it may provoke researchers and writers to give nature and other non-human objects the power and space to narrate their own accounts of terror and violence. By highlighting ecological disaster and environmental degradation in the text, the study finds in Agha’s poem A Tale So Strange (1998) a considerable contribution in the field of ecocritical and environmental literature as well as the theory of witnessing beyond humans.</em></p> 2022-12-22T13:37:54+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Research Journal of Social Sciences and Economics Review Development Prospects for Medium-Size Cities of Southeast Asian Countries 2023-02-03T03:56:28+00:00 Saima Kalwar Hina Marvi Shahbaz Khan Samoo <p><em>Medium-size cities are vital for the development of any nation. These cities act as economic and social hub for their local inhabitants and surrounding rural areas. Actually these cities promote the concept of regional development. There are various countries in this globe, who had taken initiatives for their medium-size cities planning and development. This study had critically analyzed and compared the planning initiatives taken at national level in the Southeast Asian countries for the development of their medium-size cities. The study had taken South Korea, Indonesia and Vietnam as case study areas. The study had adopted secondary data collection resources for gathering the required data. The results revealed that the national planning strategies taken in Indonesia and South Korea countries had successful results. However, due to centralized system of planning, the Vietnam government heavily focused on Industrial development. It is therefore suggested that the planning strategies for medium-size cities development should be developed by considering the economic functions these cities and their rural hinterlands are performing in order to promote regional development.</em></p> 2022-12-28T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Research Journal of Social Sciences and Economics Review Leaders are Born or Made? Perceptions of Subordinates regarding the Level of their Leadership Success at the University Level in Pakistan 2023-02-03T03:56:18+00:00 Muhammad Abbas Dr. Amna Ramzan Sarfraz Hussain <p><em>The Paramount tenacity of this quantitative paper was to discover the perspectives of the subordinates about the level of their leadership based on the five levels planned by J.C Maxwell. Leadership has been an effective phenomenon in an educational context. For the promotion of quality education, it has been used as a productive tool. The successive sections of the paper also percentage the leadership at five levels proposed by Maxwell as perceived by their subordinates. It was a quantitative study in nature. For the data collection, multistage sampling technique was applied for the selection of 248 subordinates regarding their acting leadership. The questionnaire on the basis of rating scale was used developed by Maxwell and adapted (partially) to measure the level of leadership as perceived by their employed subordinates. SPSS version 20 was used for the data analysis. According to the results, it was found that the majority of leaders possess level two (permission) according to the rating of their subordinates. The least holding level was fifth (Pinnacle). There was a significant difference in the mean scores of Gender (Male &amp; Female) p= .004. There was no statistically significant change in the mean scores of Sector (Public &amp; Private) p=.006. It was suggested. Further studies may be conducted on large scale with different sample and research methods. </em></p> 2022-12-30T15:08:47+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Research Journal of Social Sciences and Economics Review Food Security in Context of Climate Change in Pakistan: A Review 2023-02-04T03:56:30+00:00 Dr. Nazia Tabasam Shagufta Rasheed Dr. Almazea Fatima <p><em>The most complex issue of today is climate change which influences all regions of the world and results in extensive agitation to the natural ecosystem. It affects the different dimensions of life such as social, political, economic, and the sciences. Distortions in the natural ecosystem ultimately affect economic progression by posing severe threats to agricultural production and food security. The main reason behind this study is to review how climate change affects the food security by impacting agricultural production in Pakistan. It is forecasted that nine billion people would be food insecure in the world by 2050 mainly due to decrease in agricultural production. Pakistan is no exception to the effects of climatic variations. Researchers found that the extreme climatic effects like the melting of glaciers, irregular rainfall, flooding, droughts, changing temperature, heat waves, storms, and pest diseases are adding to the food insecurity problem. More than 212 million people live in Pakistan, out of which 58% are malnourished and about 20% of them are food insecure. Among the food insecure nations, Pakistan is ranking at a serious threshold level and the cost of climate change adoption is too high.</em></p> 2023-01-04T05:53:42+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Research Journal of Social Sciences and Economics Review Investigating the role of Teachers in relation to the Learners’ Academic Development in the subject of English 2023-02-04T03:56:39+00:00 Syeda Laila Saeed Sawaira Idrees Muhammad Nauman <p><em>English is a language that is used for communication approximately by two-thirds of the world's population. It is a crucial characteristic for the development of a nation in today’s world. The teacher has a very important part in the overall development of learners, particularly in the subject of English. The key objectives are to find out the teacher’s role in the improvement of the academic learning of learners in the subject of English; investigate students’ academic progress in the subject of English; and measure the association between teachers’ role and learners’ academic progress in the subject of English. These research questions were framed- What role do instructors play in the educational progress of learners? How to know the academic progress of the students academically? How to measure the correlation between teacher role and learner academic achievement? The design is a quantitative correlational study. The study populations were students and instructors at the college level of district Mardan. For the selection of the sample, random sampling techniques were used. The total sample size was 25 teachers and 100 students. To gather data from the respondents a research instrument i.e. questionnaire was employed. Mean score, STD deviation, and Pearson correlation were adopted for the analysis of the data. It was found that if the educator is concentrated on the overall growth of learners’ they learn numerous material from their teachers such as deference, communication skills, morality, good conduct, and problem-solving skills. It was also noted that there is a high correlation (r-value .537) between the teacher’s role and learners’ academic achievement.</em></p> 2022-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Research Journal of Social Sciences and Economics Review