Research Journal of Social Sciences and Economics Review https://ojs.rjsser.org.pk/index.php/rjsser <p><iframe src="https://rjsser.org.pk/" width="100%" height="4550"> </iframe></p> Sir Syed College of Education Katlang Mardan Khyber Pakhtunkhwa en-US Research Journal of Social Sciences and Economics Review 2707-9015 Analysis of the Causes of Barriers in Home-School Relationship at Secondary School Level in Pakistan https://ojs.rjsser.org.pk/index.php/rjsser/article/view/81 <p><em>Home and School relations is a term used in the learning field as a collaboration between school and home to improve learning climate. Home is the place where students are living with their parents. The objectives of the study were; to identify the current status of home school relationships and the role of Parents Teachers Meetings in public secondary schools in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Pakistan and to analyze the barriers in home school relationships and recommend solutions to them. The population of the study comprised 1833 Principals/Head Masters, 5864 Secondary school teachers, 105193 students of 10thclass, and 105193 Parents of Students of Government Boys' High School. The Sample consisted of 457 Principals and 2164 Parents of these Students located both in rural and urban areas of Government Boys' High School in the sampled districts. The primary data were obtained through questionnaires from Principals and Parents. The data were analyzed using the Chi-square goodness of fit test and qualitative treatment is given to yes /no options. The results indicated that principals and parents considered that the current status of home school relationships was much needed for effective learning. It was recommended that parents may attend the school because their children's schooling is the most important task for them.</em></p> Fazli Wahid Jadoon Dr. Niaz Muhammad Aajiz Dr. Nasrullah Khan Copyright (c) 2021 Research Journal of Social Sciences and Economics Review 2021-04-30 2021-04-30 2 2 1 8 10.36902/rjsser-vol2-iss2-2021(1-8) Examining Supervisor Support through the Lens of Conservation of Resource Theory (COR): A Sequential Path Model https://ojs.rjsser.org.pk/index.php/rjsser/article/view/256 <p><em>The study was conducted to identify the antecedents and outcomes of psychological safety and feeling trusted with some additional mediators, resulting in positive and negative outcomes. The study is novel as it was the first attempt to test the dual pathways in terms of psychological safety and trust. The study used the positivism research philosophy followed by the deductive approach to meet the objectives of the study. The survey method was used to collect the data. 400 questionnaires were distributed among subordinates and 318 returned, representing a response rate of 79.5%. On the other hand, we also took the responsibility of supervisors to rate the level of creativity of their subordinates (dyadic), with an average of 8-10 employees working under one supervisor, so we selected 40 supervisors after collecting subordinate level data and distributed questionnaires using the questionnaire coding method. The response rate from supervisors was 98%. The results suggested that supervisor support through feeling trusted and voicing behavior on employee creativity is having a significant relationship and supervisor support through feeling trusted and perceived workload on employee creativity is also having a significant relationship supporting partial mediation. Subsequently, another relationship i.e. supervisor support and employee creativity was also tested and results identified that the relationship is mediated by perceived workload and emotional exhaustion. Moreover, supervisor support relationship with employee's creativity mediated by psychological safety and voicing behavior is also having the mediation effects. Therefore, our entire hypotheses were accepted.</em></p> Shazia Akhtar Muhammad Faisal Malik Zain Rasool Awan Copyright (c) 2021 Research Journal of Social Sciences and Economics Review 2021-04-30 2021-04-30 2 2 9 18 10.36902/rjsser-vol2-iss2-2021(9-18) Exploring the Resources of Sustainable Employability in Pakistani Healthcare Settings: A Qualitative Study https://ojs.rjsser.org.pk/index.php/rjsser/article/view/280 <p><em>Sustaining employability in developing countries is a major issue specifically for those working in the private service sector. The factors that contribute to sustainable employability (SE) thus, are an important topic to explore. This study aims to delve deeper into the experience of SE of medical doctors working in the private hospitals of Pakistan. In this regard, an exploratory qualitative design was selected to understand the phenomenon and resources of SE. 20 in-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted with medical doctors of the private hospitals of Pakistan. Thematic analysis was conducted to form the major themes using Nvivo 12 software. Results showed three major themes perceptions of SE, personal resources, and social support resources. Therefore, this study contributes to the body of knowledge by exploring the relevant importance of the three categories helpful to enhance the SE of doctors.</em></p> Qudsia Jabeen Dr. Muhammadi Sabra Nadeem Dr. Shakira Huma Siddiqui Copyright (c) 2021 Research Journal of Social Sciences and Economics Review 2021-04-30 2021-04-30 2 2 19 27 10.36902/rjsser-vol2-iss2-2021(19-27) Inflation and Economic Development: A Vibrant Committee Threshold Analysis for Turkish Republics in Transition Process https://ojs.rjsser.org.pk/index.php/rjsser/article/view/292 <p><em>This examination analyzes the effect of expansion on financial development in five Turkish nations (Azerbaijan's, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstani, Uzbekistani, and Turkmenistani) that are on the move, finished powerful investigation of limit boards’ information. The aftereffects of the study show that there is a nonlinear connection among expansion and development rates; the edge for the effect of swelling on financial development is 7.97%, and expansion over this edge adversely affects monetary development, while expansion underneath this edge emphatically affects monetary development. These outcomes show that high expansion will altogether affect financial development. In such a manner, it is critical to accomplish practical development, which assumes a significant part in expanding the viability of applied financial strategy and in guaranteeing strength. Thus, policymakers and policymakers in extraordinary economies do not overlook the possibility of a money-related limit while setting the objective degree of expansion in their enemy of swelling endeavors.</em></p> Dr. Urooj Talpur Najia Shaikh Sikandar Hussain Soomro Copyright (c) 2021 Research Journal of Social Sciences and Economics Review 2021-04-30 2021-04-30 2 2 28 36 10.36902/rjsser-vol2-iss2-2021(28-36) Correlation between Multiple Intelligences and English Language Teaching Strategies https://ojs.rjsser.org.pk/index.php/rjsser/article/view/290 <p>The current study aimed to examine the correlation between Common Multiple Intelligences (CMIs) and preferred English Language Teaching Strategies (PELTS) of English Language Teachers working in public sector schools of Southern Punjab. A sample of 100 female and 100 male English language teachers was selected using convenient sampling technique to investigate the correlation between the two variables of the current study as well as to assess gender differences on PELTS and CMIs among English language teachers of public schools of Southern Punjab. Two questionnaires were developed by adapting Armstrong’s Multiple Intelligences Inventory (MII) (1994) and Strategy Inventory of Language Learning (SILL) by Oxford (1990). Data obtained from the questionnaires was analyzed by means of descriptive statistical techniques, independent sample t-test and Spearman's rank correlation coefficient (r<sub>s</sub>) with SPSS (V-20). A weak correlation r<sub>s </sub>= 0.240 (significant at P&lt;0.01 level) was found between PELTS (i.e. Memory Strategies) and CMIs (i.e. Verbal-Linguistic Intelligences) among English language teachers. These findings imply that the language teachers do not take into account their multiple intelligences (MIs) while designing or selecting English language teaching strategies (TS). It is recommended that the teachers must be aware of their own intelligence strengths to be better able to select good TS to help the young minds in achieving their learning goals. The study is expected to provide a framework for English language teachers to improve their teaching through adopting a more practical approach of utilizing their MIs in selection and development of TS.</p> Sadaf Siddiq Dr. Riaz Hussain Muhammad Amjad Copyright (c) 2021 Research Journal of Social Sciences and Economics Review 2021-04-30 2021-04-30 2 2 37 46 10.36902/rjsser-vol2-iss2-2021(37-46) 18th Amendment, Devolution of Power and Institutional Autonomy of Higher Education in Pakistan: Stakeholders’ Perceptions https://ojs.rjsser.org.pk/index.php/rjsser/article/view/295 <p><em>This phenomenological study aimed to explore the impact of devolution of power, after18<sup>th</sup> Amendment in the Constitution of Pakistan, affecting the institutional autonomy of Higher education institutions (HEIs) of Punjab in terms of; academic, organizational, and financial autonomy. By this devolution of power, key stakeholders affected are the Federal Higher Education Commission (FHEC) Islamabad, the Provincial Higher Education Commissions of all provinces of Pakistan, (PHEC Punjab in our case), along with academia and governing bodies of HEIs (public universities in our case). Resource Dependence Theory (RDT) was used as the theoretical framework to examine the varying relationships of dependence between actors (FHEC) who control resources and actors (PHEC and HEIs) who need these resources. Purposive sampling was used to sample respondents from FHEC, PHEC, and three public universities of Punjab for the semi-structured interviews, obtaining triangulation of sources. Perspectives thus gathered were analyzed and categorized into themes. The results have highlighted that aim of devolution has not been realized, and abridgment between policymakers, regulators, and the university representatives for the implementation of devolution should be properly addressed for the collective benefits of all stakeholders. It is a pioneer study and it is hoped that the recommendations suggested by stakeholders would be helpful to the policymakers for the overall improvement of the standard of higher education.</em></p> Ayesha Khawar Dr. Seema Arif Dr. Fariha Gull Copyright (c) 2021 Research Journal of Social Sciences and Economics Review 2021-04-30 2021-04-30 2 2 47 60 10.36902/rjsser-vol2-iss2-2021(47-60) Determinants of Mutual Funds Performance: A Review Article https://ojs.rjsser.org.pk/index.php/rjsser/article/view/298 <p><em>Mutual funds are a significant form of investment for the development and growth of Capital Markers. The paper surveys the existing literature that focuses on determining factors that have a role in mutual fund performance. The objective is to identify factors that affect the performance of mutual funds based on existing literature. It provides a review of the literature regarding mutual funds' performance. Different factors have been reviewed in the article which may contribute towards the return of mutual funds; some of the important factors are the size of the fund, Turnover, and Management Effectiveness. These factors have a greater contribution to the performance of Mutual Funds. These factors may be evaluated further individually or collectively in different financial markets of the world to analyze the further application of determinants in different markets.</em></p> Saqib Wahab Mahar Dr. Ghulam Muhammad Mangnejo Muhammad Ali Brohi Copyright (c) 2021 Research Journal of Social Sciences and Economics Review 2021-04-30 2021-04-30 2 2 61 67 10.36902/rjsser-vol2-iss2-2021(61-67) Objectives of Primary Education in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa: Perceptions of Teachers and Head Teachers https://ojs.rjsser.org.pk/index.php/rjsser/article/view/304 <p>Universal primary education continues to be a major issue in developing countries, including Pakistan. The purpose of this study was to analyze the perceptions of teachers and headteachers about the context of primary education in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. The objectives of this study were: (a) to analyze the perceptions of teachers and headteachers about the objectives of primary education in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa; (b) to examine the perceptions of teachers and headteachers about the context of primary education in terms of the quality improvement in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa; (c) to study the perceptions of teachers and headteachers about the context of primary education in terms of character building and skill development in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. Five hundred and six (506) respondents i.e. teachers and headteachers were selected from five districts (out of a total of 26 districts of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa) using a proportionate stratified random sampling technique. Data was collected using a questionnaire. The statistics used for the analysis of collected data included frequency, mean, percentage, and chi-square. The results indicate that learners are mostly made to memorize and learn through rote instead of developing them as independent learners. In addition, the curriculum is not updated, and teachers are not properly qualified to teach according to the needs of students for conceptual learning.</p> Falak Naz Manzoor Hussain Shah Muhammad Iqbal Majoka Copyright (c) 2021 Research Journal of Social Sciences and Economics Review 2021-04-30 2021-04-30 2 2 68 75 10.36902/rjsser-vol2-iss2-2021(68-75) Syrian Imbroglio: A Complex Interaction of Local, Regional, and Extra-Regional Actors https://ojs.rjsser.org.pk/index.php/rjsser/article/view/307 <p><em>This study provides an overview of the complex nature of the functioning of the Syrian conflict concerning the involvement of various actors (state and non-state actors) at the national, regional, and extra-regional levels. The main goal of the study is to analyze and identify the various political actors involved in the conflict, their roles, and strategies based on the convergence and divergence of their strategic interests. The research follows a qualitative approach and uses document analysis as a technique to collect and further analyze the data. It turned out that the political actors involved in this conflict can be divided into three groups; status quo forces, anti-status quo forces, and non-aligned forces. Further, the role of the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS) has become a distinctive subject of the conflict, because it fights almost with all other parties to the conflict, including the pro-Assad regime, as well as the forces against Assad. It is important to note that Israel which is one of the important players in regional geopolitics; initially expressed neutrality, but as the conflict unfolded it indulged in the conflict to counter the growing influence of Iran and the ISIS factor in the region. The study predicts that the complex functioning of the Syrian conflict involving various states and non-state actors will further complicate, and the violence is likely to continue shortly. </em></p> Prof. Dr. Muhammad Ahmed Qadri Muhammad Saeed Uzzaman Sajid Iqbal Copyright (c) 2021 Research Journal of Social Sciences and Economics Review 2021-04-30 2021-04-30 2 2 76 86 10.36902/rjsser-vol2-iss2-2021(76-86) You Better Not Never Tell Nobody but God: A Study of Sidhwa’s Fiction from Feminist Perspective https://ojs.rjsser.org.pk/index.php/rjsser/article/view/318 <p><em>The feminists have particularly pointed out the issue of silencing women. The epigraphs in Walker (30, 2004) 'you better not never tell nobody but God' and Sidhwa (1989) reflect the silencing of women as it has been the norm that women's experiences are individual, not political. Sidhwa following Beauvoir (1983) that personal is political, covertly or overtly, uncovers the atrocities being inflicted on women of the subcontinent by patriarchy to engender them voiceless through various assumptions and ideologies. To this end, three novels, Water, The Bride, and Ice-Candy-Man have been analyzed to develop an idea of the tools which are employed to force women not to disclose personal experiences. For analysis of the texts, the ideas of different postcolonial feminists have been applied. The study shows that women remain silent in social and domestic matters. They docilely bear quandary and molestation as 'icons of honor' in idyllic as well as sadistic circumstances. They do not share their defilement as they are conditioned that silence is the only asylum for them. Sidhwa as a harbinger of the voice of women of the subcontinent has demystified the essentials of patriarchy as a firsthand witness of their silencing and subjugation. </em></p> Dr. Shamshad Rasool Dr. Waseem Hasan Malik Dr. Raza-e-Mustafa Copyright (c) 2021 Research Journal of Social Sciences and Economics Review 2021-04-30 2021-04-30 2 2 87 94 10.36902/rjsser-vol2-iss2-2021(87-94) Fun & Humor can Reduce Anxiety & Psychological Distress amongst Cancer Patients https://ojs.rjsser.org.pk/index.php/rjsser/article/view/257 <p><em>Humor has been acknowledged in different fields especially known as a strong communication tool. However, very little researches are available concerning overcoming the psychological health of cancer patients through involvement in humorous activities. This study has novelty as it investigated the effects of humor on psychological distress and anxiety. The sample of the study was cancer patients who were living in Rawalpindi and Islamabad. Snowball sampling technique was used and the study was cross-sectional. The response rate was 92% as 125 questionnaires were distributed among those 115 selected for further analysis. The data was collected through a self-administered questionnaire from the different hospitals of Rawalpindi and Islamabad. Moreover, the data was collected in two phases. In the first phase, we identified the cancer patients who were having the symptoms of psychological distress and anxiety and in the second phase again data was collected after the humor. Factor Analysis, multicollinearity, linearity, normality, regression, and correlations have been tested and results showed that humor is having negatively significant results on psychological distress and anxiety. Whereas collectivism was taken as a moderator in the current study and we found that it is not moderating between humor and psychological distress as well as between humor and anxiety. The discussion, limitations, and future gaps are also discussed.</em></p> Shazia Akhtar Muhammad Faisal Malik Zain Rasool Awan Copyright (c) 2021 Research Journal of Social Sciences and Economics Review 2021-04-30 2021-04-30 2 2 95 104 10.36902/rjsser-vol2-iss2-2021(95-104) Objectives of the Financial Decision Factors and its Impact on Economic Growth in the Sindh Province https://ojs.rjsser.org.pk/index.php/rjsser/article/view/296 <p><em>The monetary development of the areas/urban communities in Sindh is moderately lower than in different districts. This exploration demonstrated that budgetary choices majorly affect monetary development. The metropolitan spending plan decides financial development. While the nearby government spending plan centers on current spending as opposed to improvement spending, financial development will decrease. The examination additionally discovered that the monetary condition, the lawful condition, the political condition, and the social condition decide the money-related choices in a neighborhood government. What's more, the examination infers that the political condition impacts financial development while the monetary, lawful, and social condition does not influence monetary development.</em></p> Najia Shaikh Zareen Qadeer Mehtab Begum Siddiqui Copyright (c) 2021 Research Journal of Social Sciences and Economics Review 2021-04-30 2021-04-30 2 2 105 110 10.36902/rjsser-vol2-iss2-2021(105-110) Study on Stress and Satisfaction at work among Women's Banks https://ojs.rjsser.org.pk/index.php/rjsser/article/view/308 <p><em>The point of this investigation is exactly to be investigated set up reasons for pressure, associated with work and their effect on the degree of fulfillment from work. Respondents have been banking ladies, working in Karachi. To gather the appropriate response from (n = 345) female investors was utilized a poll to approach consummation. To be assembled to reply than most - female brokers was somewhat more - troublesome assignment in this manner advantageous system for the creation of tests is applied. By basic displaying of conditions (SEM) was built up, that factors, for example, working spot and working relationship huge reason for pressure, associated with work among brokers, which in the last cost prompts a negative degree of employment fulfillment than most female financiers, be that as it may, positive degree of work, related with pressure predicts positive degree of fulfillment from work. The examination focused on the significance of fulfillment from work and reasons for worry among brokers. Most opportune reaction to push factors, among female brokers might be roused to show w-high - request duty.</em></p> Zareen Qadeer Sikandar Hussain Soomro Roshan Ali Umrani Copyright (c) 2021 Research Journal of Social Sciences and Economics Review 2021-04-30 2021-04-30 2 2 111 119 10.36902/rjsser-vol2-iss2-2021(111-119) The Analysis of Teaching Democratic Values at Secondary Level in District Sargodha https://ojs.rjsser.org.pk/index.php/rjsser/article/view/270 <p><em>Democratic education and administration in educational institutes play a significant role in building a democratic society. The focus of the current study was to examine the existing and desired level of teaching democratic values at the secondary level. A convergent mixed methods design was used in phase one. All secondary school heads, teachers, and students were constituted as the population of the study. The sample was selected through multistage sampling stage Twenty-eight (28) schools (4 from each Tehsil) were selected through stratified sampling. One school was taken from each stratum: Urban Female, Rural Female, Urban Male, and Rural Male. One headteacher, three teachers, and 25 students from each sampled school were selected conveniently. There were 28 heads, 84 teachers, and 704 students selected conveniently as a sample. Three instruments were used in this study; two self-developed questionnaires consisted of 26 items, one for secondary level students and the second for secondary school teachers to collect quantitative data. The value of Cronbach's Alpha (0.89) showed that the instruments were highly reliable. The third instrument was an interview schedule consisted of five questions. Analysis of the data showed that the desired level of teaching democratic values and its sub-values is significantly greater than the existing level of teaching democratic values. It leads to the conclusion that there is more need to teach democratic values and their sub-values at secondary level students. Based on the findings of the study it was recommended that Curriculum Development committees of Pakistan may suggest a separate course for teaching democratic values at the secondary level</em></p> Shabana Zahoor Ashfaque Ahmad Shah Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Copyright (c) 2021 Research Journal of Social Sciences and Economics Review 2021-05-08 2021-05-08 2 2 120 132 10.36902/rjsser-vol2-iss2-2021(120-132) The Effectiveness of Creative Writing for Students at Elementary Level: A Case Study https://ojs.rjsser.org.pk/index.php/rjsser/article/view/287 <p><em>Writing is one of the productive skills which sometime seems difficult to acquire to the learners. There are many approaches to teach writing. Creative writing is one approach of teaching writing which has become more familiar in recent era. In our country many schools of Urdu and English medium are implementing this approach now-a-days to teach writing in the elementary level. This aim of this study is to find out the effectiveness of creative writing in language learning. Now a days there is too much attention of teachers on making students to be creative writer. This study explores the difficulties of creative writing which the Pre O level students consistently face while writing and the effectiveness of creative writing for students. To collect the data the researcher visited Beacon house School located in Valencia Lahore. The researcher provided questionnaires having 15 questions to 40 students of that institute in order to collect information and data from them. The researcher also interviewed 4 students from that institute to collect more data and information which are missing or inadequate in the questionnaire. The collected data explore that creative writing classes are important and influential for learners and they want these kinds of activities to improve their learning skills. The students face many hindrances and problems while writing. The findings showed that students of both medium like Creative writing classes and it influences their language learning. Therefore, it can be said that Creative writing can be used as an effective language learning tool.</em></p> Ghulam Mujtaba Yasir Sadia Gondal Dr. Afsheen Salahuddin Copyright (c) 2021 Research Journal of Social Sciences and Economics Review 2021-05-08 2021-05-08 2 2 133 145 10.36902/rjsser-vol2-iss2-2021(133-145) Trauma, Identity, and Narrative in fiction: A Critique of The Blind Man’s Garden as Trauma Fiction https://ojs.rjsser.org.pk/index.php/rjsser/article/view/291 <p><em>Trauma relates to the pain that brings violent rupture in the individuals as well as social life of people and leads to collective trauma. The relation between trauma and fiction can be traced in various ways (Whitehead, 2004). The study aims to explore how the theme of trauma is incorporated in a narrative. For this purpose, The Blind Man's Garden by Nadeem Aslam is selected as a fictional base, and Trauma Fiction by Ann Whitehead (2004) is used as a tool to analyze the emotional condition and trauma of Pakistani natives after the war on terror. This study is essentially qualitative and placed within the interpretive paradigm. Twenty passages have been selected from the selected fiction as textual data through non-random sampling techniques. Findings of the study revealed that themes in the selected novel convey the trauma of Pakistani society by using powerful language techniques most effectively. It is also revealed that painful events are embedded in the mind of the individuals thus transforming them into traumatic beings. Resultantly, the individual trauma leads towards the trauma of society as a whole. The study urges future researchers to explore other narratives highlighting the cultural, social, and gender trauma of Pakistani society.</em></p> Dr. Mamoona Yasmeen Khan Fatima Noor Dr. Fariha Chaudhary Copyright (c) 2021 Research Journal of Social Sciences and Economics Review 2021-05-08 2021-05-08 2 2 146 152 10.36902/rjsser-vol2-iss2-2021(146-152) Technology Enhanced Formative Assessment for Students Learning in Mathematics at Elementary Level https://ojs.rjsser.org.pk/index.php/rjsser/article/view/297 <p><em>Technology Enhanced Formative Assessment is an innovative and verified pedagogical method for mathematics and science instruction using clickers as a tool to achieve learning gains. Question-based instruction, dialogical discourse, formative assessment, and meta-level communication are the four main rules on which this Classroom Response System (clickers) based pedagogy is constructed. An iterative question cycle helps in executing these principles in the classroom. Non-equivalent comparison group quasi-experimental design was applied on a sample of 183 participants. These participants were taken from two urban high schools (i.e., boys and girls). This intervention lasted for eight weeks. The study members comprised 42 females and 47 males in the experimental group. 54 females and 40 males were in the control group of the 8<sup>th</sup> mathematics class. Multiple choice questions-based achievement test (both Pre and Post-intervention) was administered to both groups at the same time. The results of One-way ANCOVA showed that the intervention was effective. The results of the Post-test analysis showed that the experimental group achieved considerably higher than the control group. The study implications for curriculum developers, school administrators, and teachers are discussed.</em></p> Abida Shaheen Dr. Farhana Khurshid Engr. Zareen Khan Copyright (c) 2021 Research Journal of Social Sciences and Economics Review 2021-05-08 2021-05-08 2 2 153 163 10.36902/rjsser-vol2-iss2-2021(153-163) US-Taliban Negotiated Peace Accord: Analyzing the Future Prospects https://ojs.rjsser.org.pk/index.php/rjsser/article/view/303 <p><em>Doha Peace Accord is inked between the US and the Taliban, to end 18 years of long-drawn war and bring comprehensively consolidated peace in Afghanistan through a scheduled mechanism. Though the Accord shifted the balance of power in favor of the Taliban but yet they have to conciliate through an intra-Afghan dialogue with all of its complexities and intricacies. The paper analyses the provisions of the Doha Peace Accord and its surrounding environment to portray its future- promising or otherwise. The analyses led to the exploration of events likely to unfold during the process, generating hopes or optimism reroute or creating obstacles in reaching out to the intended future. The research suggests engaged alignments of the Afghan stakeholders in brokering long-term peace through exclusive political arrangements. And for this Taliban must be willing to give away their earned power to other collaborators for the sake of permanent truce and socio-economic development of war-torn Afghanistan. The research concludes that the success of negotiated peace transforming into a broad-based political arrangement is directly dependent on the effective facilitation of America, Russia, China, and Pakistan. However, the chance of India and other proxies acting as a spoiler in the peace negotiation cannot be ruled out.</em></p> Dr. Rooh ul Amin Dr. Ghulam Muhammad Awan Dr. Fozia Naseem Copyright (c) 2021 Research Journal of Social Sciences and Economics Review 2021-05-09 2021-05-09 2 2 164 170 10.36902/rjsser-vol2-iss2-2021(164-170) Investigating Projection in Lorca’s Play the House of Bernarda Alba: A Jungian Perspective https://ojs.rjsser.org.pk/index.php/rjsser/article/view/329 <p><em>In daily life, the concepts like denial, catharsis, slip of tongue, and neurosis are used to cure psycho cases. The psychoanalytical theories instigate to probe into them. This study aims to explore the issue of denying one’s shadow and its impact on the personality when one fails to understand the dark side of his/her personality. Lorca’s play The House of Bernarda Alba constitutes the sample of the study. The framework comprises ‘Projection’, an aspect of Jung’s theory of personality which human beings use as a defense mechanism to avoid their shadow. Textual Analysis has been used to collect and analyze data. The findings reveal that the characters particularly Alba undergo suppression due to internal and external forces. She suppresses the desires and the instincts of her daughters as a defense mechanism because the social forces and their will to satisfy the aspects of their desires are in direct conflict. Her attempt to overpower shadow brings destruction being unable to understand it and get insight from it. She suppresses shadow strictly and, eventually, the whole family suffers from personality imbalance.</em></p> Dr. Muhammad Akram Dr. Shamshad Rasool Shahbaz Ahmad Copyright (c) 2021 Research Journal of Social Sciences and Economics Review 2021-05-11 2021-05-11 2 2 171 178 10.36902/rjsser-vol2-iss2-2021(171-178) Tourism in Quarantine; Living in the COVID-19 Era https://ojs.rjsser.org.pk/index.php/rjsser/article/view/331 <p><em>The Global tourism industry goes through considerable setbacks as a result of the global economic situation on one side and COVID-19 on the other side. The sea, sun, and shrine, silence created a collapsing of tourism economies include small and large tourism-based businesses. The disastrous impact of COVID-19 nearly on every global state has created a situation of life, business, and all at risk. Risks are considered proportional to mobility of tourist while crisis-hit travel business is harder than leisure as travel affect tourism demand. The pandemic converted into a disastrous situation globally. The controlled movement, social distancing, ban of recreational visits, closer of destination and businesses dropped the international and domestic tourism.&nbsp; The Global tourism peace is in sharp decline up to 70% and the experts expect a loss to business, jobs, and lifestyle activities. The COVID-19 pandemic spreads, shaken the tourism numbers drastically, and will also affect the long-term growth and momentum. The situation of Pakistan is not different from the rest of the world and seems more vulnerable to the tourism rejuvenation strategies by the present Government and the economic situation in the country.</em></p> Mohammad Alam Mohammad Hanif Khan Altaf Hussain Copyright (c) 2021 Research Journal of Social Sciences and Economics Review 2021-05-20 2021-05-20 2 2 179 183 10.36902/rjsser-vol2-iss2-2021(179-183) Impediments of Tourism in Dir Lower: The Way Forward https://ojs.rjsser.org.pk/index.php/rjsser/article/view/333 <p><em>The study examined impediments of tourism in Dir Lower. The objective of the study was to find the reasons why tourism is not flourished in the area and what is the way forward. The population of the study was the inhabitants of District Dir Lower residing in 7 Tehsils. A total of 510 respondents as a sample was taken from the population. The questionnaire was employed for collecting data. Data analysis was done through SPSS. The study found that lack of Government concern towards tourism, infrastructure, and superstructure of the area and Dir state policies were the main hurdles for the less development of tourism in Dir Lower. The study recommended that Government should give more focus to the tourism of the area by taking steps which develop and promote tourism in Dir. Infrastructure and superstructure development is another area that needs attention. Government and locals need to step up to overcome this challenge. It is also recommended that steps need to be taken to bring awareness among people and mindset needs to be changed so they can accept tourism for their benefits and the benefits of the area and country.</em></p> Mohammad Hanif Khan Mohammad Alam Shah Manzoor Copyright (c) 2021 Research Journal of Social Sciences and Economics Review 2021-05-20 2021-05-20 2 2 184 188 10.36902/rjsser-vol2-iss2-2021(184-188) Ethical Considerations in Social Sciences: The Dilemmas of Informed Consent https://ojs.rjsser.org.pk/index.php/rjsser/article/view/328 <p><em>Informed consent is an integral component of research ethics in Social Sciences. It has been observed that in Pakistan, most of the research ethics have been borrowed from the Western context. Therefore, it is vital to see how research ethics are being construed and practiced in Pakistan having different socio-cultural values and norms. In the case of informed consent, the bigger question is ‘how informed the informed consent is?’ Thus, in this paper, through a qualitative exploratory approach, we have explored how active Social Science researchers in our universities, see the notion of informed consent. We interviewed eighteen university teachers for the study. Transcribed the interviews verbatim and analyzed those using robust qualitative approaches. Findings show that ‘informed consent’ becomes a dilemma for the researchers given the variations in the socio-cultural and linguistic contexts of the settings. Findings have pertinent implications for policymakers, university management, and researchers in the context of Social Sciences.</em></p> Haji Karim Khan Sajjad Hussain Mir Alam Copyright (c) 2021 Research Journal of Social Sciences and Economics Review 2021-05-21 2021-05-21 2 2 189 195 10.36902/rjsser-vol2-iss2-2021(189-195) Effects of Paternal Heroin Addictive Behavior on Academic Grades of their Children at Secondary School Level https://ojs.rjsser.org.pk/index.php/rjsser/article/view/330 <p><em>This study is aimed to figure out the effects of paternal heroin addiction and their impact on the academic performance of their children in Rawalpindi and Islamabad, Pakistan. The present research has adopted a qualitative design which comprised of heroin-addicted fathers and the teachers of their children who were studying at secondary school level Data were analyzed by using Pearson Correlation methods and the results indicate that the paternal heroin addiction habit is negative, non-significantly correlated to the academic performance of their children. We hypothesize that the weak negative correlation between paternal heroin-addicted habits and academic performance of children is due to their low dependence on their father than their mother. In under-developing countries like Pakistan, the father is involved in outdoor jobs or activities and does not spend more time with their children.</em></p> Qurat Ul Ain Dr. Muhammad Arshad Dahar Dr. Qaisra Perveen Copyright (c) 2021 Research Journal of Social Sciences and Economics Review 2021-05-23 2021-05-23 2 2 196 205 10.36902/rjsser-vol2-iss2-2021(196-205) Investigating Psycho-Social Basis of Gender Bias and Domestic Violence in Pakistani Society https://ojs.rjsser.org.pk/index.php/rjsser/article/view/334 <p><em>Gender bias is a common phenomenon in the male dominating societies existing on the globe. These societies are often found in the poor countries of the world. In past, this imbalance between the genders existed as a norm, but as time passed, many countries of the world got emancipated through training and legislation.&nbsp; Unfortunately, in Pakistan, the woman still is weak and depends on men for maintenance and the state also practically does not support women despite the presence of laws.&nbsp; Our study takes a sample from rural and urban areas of the Rawalpindi district in Pakistan. We conducted ethnographic interviews with open-ended questions from 105 women and 9 advocates/ lawyers of women. Through qualitative and quantitative analysis, it is revealed that women have to face bias and domestic violence which are initiated mainly because of their gender difference and low social status.</em></p> Dr. Muhammad Gulfraz Abbasi Dr. Zafar Iqbal Khattak Dr. Yasir Arafat Copyright (c) 2021 Research Journal of Social Sciences and Economics Review 2021-05-23 2021-05-23 2 2 206 214 10.36902/rjsser-vol2-iss2-2021(206-214) A Historical Review of the Difficulties of “Ashab-e-Suffah” the Companions of the Holy Prophet Muhammad (SAW) https://ojs.rjsser.org.pk/index.php/rjsser/article/view/319 <p><em>There is a platform behind the Holy hujra in Masjid Nabavi. This is the place where the Companions used to stay who had no home, and who used to recite the Holy Quran daily and benefit from the companionship of the Holy Prophet. Hazrat Abu Huraira is one of the prominent students of this seminary. The number of Ashab e sufah companions used to be more or less, sometimes their number would reach up to eighty. The number of Ashab e suffah kept increasing and decreasing and their number has reached four hundred. But at one time their number did not exceed four hundred and there was no room for it. There are some educational pages of the golden chapter of the history of Islam which start with the companions of Ashab e Suffah these chapters teach them the book (Qur'an) and wisdom (Sunnah). Some of them sometimes brought wood from the forest for sale and made a living at some point in the day. Among them, ancient narrators have written permanent books. In the shadow of a canopy on the northeast side of the Prophet's Masjid in Madinah, these people were devoting their lives to the pursuit of knowledge. Free from family, not for business, not for agriculture, not for their livelihood, not for a family there was peace and contentment in their lives, and Allah chose them for the companionship of the Prophet</em> <em>peace be upon him.</em></p> Dr. Hashmat Begum Dr. Samina Begum Dr. Hafiz Muhammad Ibrar Ullah Copyright (c) 2021 Research Journal of Social Sciences and Economics Review 2021-05-24 2021-05-24 2 2 215 219 10.36902/rjsser-vol2-iss2-2021(215-219) Stuart Hallian Study of Shakespeare: A Resurgence of Hamlet through Haider https://ojs.rjsser.org.pk/index.php/rjsser/article/view/326 <p><em>This work aims to investigate the rebuilding of the Shakespearean play Hamlet in an Indian movie Haider and the similarities and differences between both of the works. It further explores the audience’s reception of the movie and the meanings that every diverse group drives differently according to their culture and context, geographies, and mindsets. It explains the reestablishing of Shakespearean works in the Indian context and the highlighting of local issues. The paper in the light of Stuart Hall’s reception theory manifests the idea of the director Bhrdawaj who decodes the text of Hamlet according to his intelligence and then he encodes some meanings by recreating Hamlet into an adaptation. The Indian cinematic representation of Haider is then further decoded by various groups of audience rendering to their varied receptions. Most of the characters and their sensations in the Haider are similar to that of Hamlet's but their portrayal can be seen differently in this adaptation. Some characters are missing like Horatio, some are given clear voices who are previously ambiguous in the play, as Gertrude in the form of Ghazala, and a few are differently created to look realistic in the modern world such as Roohdaar who acts like Hamlet's ghost but is not the ghost, he is instead a prisoner and revolutionary who performs the similar role of conveying the message of vengeance as the Shakespearean ghost does. This research is also concerned about the last message given in the movie which is opposite of Hamlet's text, and through which the producer has tried to change the notion of revenge.</em></p> Nimra Zafar Farwa Batool Salman Sajid Copyright (c) 2021 Research Journal of Social Sciences and Economics Review 2021-05-24 2021-05-24 2 2 220 226 10.36902/rjsser-vol2-iss2-2021(220-226) Views of Master Trainers about Induction Level Training of Elementary School Educators in Rawalpindi https://ojs.rjsser.org.pk/index.php/rjsser/article/view/336 <p><em>The main purpose of this research paper was to explore the trainer's views on induction training. The researchers focused on Rawalpindi. Seventy-five trainers were selected from Rawalpindi. The total number of trainers in Rawalpindi was 300. Researchers prepared questioner based on the 5-point Likert scale. Cronbach's training was on planning lessons, communication skills, seating arrangements, school record keeping, and maintaining the teacher’s diary. There was a lack of training in preparation of tests, use of AV aids effectively, methodology of varied subjects’ teaching, papers, and assessment techniques. It is recommended to include some subject-based training courses at the induction level. Training of applicable use of AV aids needs major consideration. Appropriate training on assessment tests and essay preparation can be provided. Induction-level training lacks attention to the time management skills of novice teachers. During the training period, the time management skills of trainee teachers can be improved. Training on solo taxonomy may be provided. Time management skills of newly Alpha Reliability of the questioner was 0.85. The researchers collected the data themselves. The mean value with percentage was used for data analysis. The focus of induction level inducted teachers may be focused on training.</em></p> Sher Muhammad Dr. Hukamdad Dr. Muhammad Samiullah Copyright (c) 2021 Research Journal of Social Sciences and Economics Review 2021-05-24 2021-05-24 2 2 227 231 10.36902/rjsser-vol2-iss2-2021(227-231) The Migration of Muslims and their blessings in the light of the Quran and Sunnah https://ojs.rjsser.org.pk/index.php/rjsser/article/view/320 <p><em>The blessed migration of the Prophet (peace be upon him) is a great historical event. The year AH has also been started on the occasion of this event. This incident changed the history of Muslims. The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) and the believers faced extraordinary difficulties during the migration. The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) overcame all these difficulties and continued his struggle for the domination of religion, and eventually, the Arab world was subjugated. Migration is a glorious chapter in Islamic history without which Islamic history remains incomplete. Rather, the breadth of Islamic history and its evolution is related to the event of migration. Only after migration did Islam emerge from the barren land of Mecca and its limited walls. Migration is a revolutionary message of the movement, awakening, rejoicing, and immense devotion to all humanity. Migration has given rise to a new dawn in the world for all humanity.</em> <em>Migration is not the name of a static and limited process, but it is the name of a positive and solid philosophy.</em> <em>Migration is a constant test, and it tests one's morale step by step</em>.</p> Dr. Samina Begum Dr. Hafiz Muhammad Ibrar Ullah Dr. Fareed ud Din Tariq Copyright (c) 2021 Research Journal of Social Sciences and Economics Review 2021-06-05 2021-06-05 2 2 232 236 10.36902/rjsser-vol2-iss2-2021(232-236) What role Intangible Rewards Play in Enhancing Organizational Commitment? An Empirical Study https://ojs.rjsser.org.pk/index.php/rjsser/article/view/230 <p><em>The current study is aimed to explore the role of intangible rewards on organizational commitment. The study is carried out employing a quantitative research design and instrumentation was adapted to collect the feedback from the respondents. A total of 300 questionnaires were distributed among the employees of Telecom organizations of Pakistan and the response ratio remained at 79%. The study focused on two critical variables, i.e., Intangible Rewards and Organizational Commitment as independent and dependent respectively. The collected data were analyzed by using software SPSS (20.0) and the results portray that intangible rewards have a positive and inevitable impact on organizational commitment. Furthermore, the implications, recommendations, and limitations for further research have been thoroughly discussed.</em></p> Dr. Muhammad Zia-ur-Rehman Dr. Syed Arif Ahmad Mian Saad ud Din Copyright (c) 2021 Research Journal of Social Sciences and Economics Review 2021-06-05 2021-06-05 2 2 237 245 10.36902/rjsser-vol2-iss2-2021(237-245) Effect of ICT on Students Academic Development at the University Level https://ojs.rjsser.org.pk/index.php/rjsser/article/view/325 <p><em>The focus of the study was to measure the effect of ICT on the students’ academic development at the university level. The study was descriptive and for data collection survey method was used. The population consisted of all teachers and students of private and public universities of Islamabad and Rawalpindi. The total population of teachers in the public and private universities were 4078 and students were 140,125. A Stratified random technique was used for selecting the study sample. The researcher selected 525 teachers from public and private universities as well as 900 students from public and private universities. The researcher developed two questionnaires using a five-point Likert scale on the foundation of related literature. The reliability of these instruments was determined through Cronbach’s alpha which was 0.839 teacher instrument and 0.832 was student instrument. Mean, standard deviation, t-test, and regression analysis were used for analyzing the data. It was found that ICT services are available at the public and private sector universities. It was also found that there was a significant effect of ICT on students’ academic development. It is recommended may universities provide equal opportunities to students and to make access able ICT services for Students.</em></p> Shabeena Shaheen Aqsa Saleem Hina Yaqub Copyright (c) 2021 Research Journal of Social Sciences and Economics Review 2021-06-05 2021-06-05 2 2 246 254 10.36902/rjsser-vol2-iss2-2021(246-254) Long Term Memory Effect in Selected Cryptocurrencies https://ojs.rjsser.org.pk/index.php/rjsser/article/view/340 <p><em>The worth of digital currencies is increasing due to its proposed advantages and profits. Though decentralized, these digital currencies can be bought with digital wallets using cryptocurrency platform. Efficient Market Hypothesis (EMH) suggests fundamentals for understanding of financial markets however the opponents believe that this theory is incompetent in explaining the functioning of the markets. EMH is not a perfect model nevertheless it provides a concrete base for the analysis of capital markets. EMH’s weak version is utilized for this study. This research compares three top cryptocurrencies- Bitcoin, Ethereum and Litecoin to analyze their long-range memory effect to check the market efficiency and also to estimate the volatility for further investments in different cryptocurrencies. Generalized Hurst exponent methodology is applied to examine long range memory in selected cryptocurrencies market. Daily data from 17<sup>th</sup> September 2015 till 17<sup>th </sup>October 2018 is used in this study. It was found that: (i) Long memory exists in the selected cryptocurrencies; (ii) Ethereum market is more persistent than Bitcoin and Litecoin as its Hurst exponent is more than the other cryptocurrencies. These findings can be a source of assistance for the policy makers and investors while making prudent decisions regarding investment in emerging cryptocurrencies market.</em></p> Zartashia Hameed Dr. Khuram Shafi Dr. Samina Nawab Copyright (c) 2021 Research Journal of Social Sciences and Economics Review 2021-06-05 2021-06-05 2 2 255 263 10.36902/rjsser-vol2-iss2-2021(255-263) Human Resource Diversity Management – A Conceptual Analysis https://ojs.rjsser.org.pk/index.php/rjsser/article/view/339 <p><em>The twenty first century has led to borderless interactions, which in turn has opened a vast variety of opportunities leading to workforce diversity. Human Resource Diversity Management is considered among the most imperative tools of human resource. Humans differ in multiple aspects but in order to maintain and excel in global diversity, we must understand and comprehend these differences so that they strengthen the company's goals as well as perceived objectives. This research was carried out to conceptualize and analyze the three variables, which are, Human Resource Diversity Management, International Compensations as well as Ethics and Social Responsibility which impact the workforce in an organization leading to its growth or downfall. Conceptual analysis shows that HR Diversity is the need of the hour for organizations and in order to get more value in the market, the organizations have to en-cash this strength through multiple methods. </em></p> Dr. Muhammad Zia-ur-Rehman Dr. Sumeera Imran Zainab Fatima Bokhari Copyright (c) 2021 Research Journal of Social Sciences and Economics Review 2021-06-05 2021-06-05 2 2 264 271 10.36902/rjsser-vol2-iss2-2021(264-271) University Students’ Perception regarding Inquiry-Based Learning of Science at Secondary Level https://ojs.rjsser.org.pk/index.php/rjsser/article/view/343 <p><em>Inquiry-based learning adds immediate support to science education with a growing number of teachers interested in teaching that includes programs or inquiry (Eltanahy et al., 2019). It is a method that engages students in activities that copy scientific research methods and related content or give a presentation in the context of an inquiry (Constantinou, Tsivitanidou &amp; Rybska, 2018). The main focus of the study was to find the views of university students regarding learning science through inquiry-based learning. A survey method was used and a questionnaire regarding the perception of inquiry-based learning in science was filled by students of the university. The sample of this study was 110 students who were doing graduation in a different program of science subject. The results of this research showed that the majority of the students gave a satisfactory and positive response, as they mostly agreed with every item of the questionnaire, and in their opinion inquiry-based learning should be used for science subjects at the secondary level. Students also claimed that it is a more effective method, they acquire motivation and are encouraged during inquiry-based learning. The study recommended that teachers should use specific methods in their classes to give better education. To systematize these applications, teachers can be assigned the researcher role in action research to be directed in the field of education to allow them to conduct inquiry and engage the students in learning on their own.</em></p> Shafia Baber Dr. Azhar Majeed Qureshi Copyright (c) 2021 Research Journal of Social Sciences and Economics Review 2021-06-08 2021-06-08 2 2 272 280 10.36902/rjsser-vol2-iss2-2021(272-280) Perceptions of Principals and Teachers regarding Students’ Mobile Phone use in Higher Secondary Schools of District Swabi https://ojs.rjsser.org.pk/index.php/rjsser/article/view/265 <p><em>The present study was sought to explore the perceptions of principals and teachers regarding students' mobile phone use in higher secondary schools of District Swabi. The objectives of the study were to explore the perceptions of principals and teachers regarding the use of mobile phones. The population of the study comprises all of the Government Higher Secondary School (GHSS) Swabi, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. The population of the study consisted of all of the Government Higher Secondary School (GHSS) Swabi, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. The sample size comprises 100 subject specialists, 76 secondary school teachers, and 19 principals randomly selected from 19 Government Higher Secondary Schools of District Swabi. The research instrument for data collection was a closed-ended Questionnaire containing 10 items on the Likert scale. The collected data were analyzed through different statistical tools like mean, standard deviation, and chi-square. The findings of the study concluded that the majority of the respondents were against the use of mobile phones during school. </em></p> Mr. Kifayat Ullah Mr. Fazal Hayat Dr. Muhabat Khan Copyright (c) 2021 Research Journal of Social Sciences and Economics Review 2021-06-14 2021-06-14 2 2 281 287 10.36902/rjsser-vol2-iss2-2021(281-287) Effectiveness of Monitoring and Evaluation System in Context of Continuous Professional Development of Secondary School Teachers as a National Professional Standard for Teachers in Pakistan https://ojs.rjsser.org.pk/index.php/rjsser/article/view/345 <p><em>Effective monitoring and evaluation are essential to maintain the learning process and a prerequisite for sustainable education. This study was conducted to find out the effectiveness of the Monitoring and Evaluation (M &amp;E) system in Continuous Professional Development (CPD) of Secondary School Teachers (SSTs) as a National Professional Standard for Teachers (NPSTs) in Pakistan. The effectiveness of this standard was analyzed in 181 Federal Government Secondary schools spread over all Pakistan. The performance of 249 secondary school teachers was observed by 131 principals and 17 Conveners of the Quality Audit Team. The program of (M&amp;E) system was implemented by Federal Government Educational Institutions Directorate Rawalpindi during 2015-16. To find the effectiveness of the M&amp;E System in CPD as an NPST, the Rating Scale for 131 Principals was designed to observe the performance of secondary school teachers in the said standard. Rating scales for secondary school teachers were used to find their self-opinion. Semi-structured interviews of Conveners were conducted. Data was collected by adopting a stratified sampling technique by taking data from all areas/regions, male, female, and secondary schools. Data collected was based on performance levels before and after implementation of the Monitoring and Evaluation system. A mixed-method was used for the analysis of data. The effectiveness of the M &amp; E system and CPD was analyzed through paired-tailed t-tests and thematic analysis was done of semi-structured interviews. It was concluded that the performance level of SSTs improved after attaining CPD that also reflected the effectiveness of the M &amp; E System in FGEIs.</em> <em>The study will be instrumental in modifying the system of monitoring and evaluation (M&amp;E) in educational institutions.</em> <em>The results of this study will help to improve the performance of institutions and teachers in light of national professional standards.</em></p> Khalid Mehmood Ali Hussain Bangash Khadija Awan Copyright (c) 2021 Research Journal of Social Sciences and Economics Review 2021-06-14 2021-06-14 2 2 288 294 10.36902/rjsser-vol2-iss2-2021(288-294) Self-Efficacy affects Turnover Intention through Burnout-A Study of Nurses in Pakistan https://ojs.rjsser.org.pk/index.php/rjsser/article/view/346 <p><em>The research study aims to investigate the reason for turnover intention among Pakistani registered nurses with the possible impact of self-efficacy in the presence of burnout as a mediator. This study conceptualizes that self-efficacy may play a significant role to manage burnout and turnover intention by investigating the mediation of burnout between self-efficacy and turnover intention among registered nurses in Pakistan. In a nutshell, employees’ turnover intention is a major behavioral issue in organizations worldwide. There is a need to explore and understand the factors that elevate employees' intention to quit because it affects organizational performance directly and indirectly by improving their performance and reducing their costs by retaining their employees. Data for this study is collected by conducting both paper-based and online surveys using structured questionnaires. The samples for the study are taken from the nurses from all provinces of Pakistan using a systematic random sampling technique. The findings of this study would be beneficial for healthcare professionals to understand the factors that instigate turnover intention among Pakistani nurses. It would be significant for the policymakers of healthcare institutes in devising their policies to reduce the causes of stress and burnout among nurses to control their intentions to quit the job. Moreover, it will help health organizations to know that how the affected nurses from the syndrome of job burnout and having the intention to leave can be managed.</em></p> Barza Iftikhar Mir Dr. Tahira Nazir Dr. Khurram Shafi Copyright (c) 2021 Research Journal of Social Sciences and Economics Review 2021-06-14 2021-06-14 2 2 295 304 10.36902/rjsser-vol2-iss2-2021(295-304) A Phenomenological Study of Master Trainers Regarding Induction Training Practices in Punjab https://ojs.rjsser.org.pk/index.php/rjsser/article/view/350 <p><em>A trainer's role is to assist his trainees in how to be a skilled and effective master trainer. A good trainer can grab the attention of the participants by guiding them on how to be effective in their work (Hasib &amp; Azka, 2020; Parsley, 2018).</em> <em>The research aimed to find out master trainers’ lived experiences related to induction training of elementary school teachers in Punjab. The present study was conducted in the phenomenological design because it is intended to gain deep insight into master trainers’ perspectives related to induction training of elementary school teachers. For this study, six semi-structured in-depth phenomenological interviews were conducted for data collection. Only those master trainers were selected for research who had a minimum of five years of training experience in induction training. Both male and female participants were selected through purposive sampling. Three-stage coding methods and thematic analysis were used for data analysis. Qualitative data analysis revealed key four themes, namely being experienced as a master trainer, activities by trainers, skills developed by trainers, and the fourth theme was complicated with the challenges facing being a master trainer and suggestions from them. Findings from this research, point out that induction training has countless value for elementary school teachers. The study also explored and communicate the importance of master trainers' role in developing different skills of elementary school teachers through different activities. The study also investigated the master trainers' challenges and problems related to induction training.</em></p> Parveen Akhtar Dr. Azhar Majeed Qureshi Copyright (c) 2021 Research Journal of Social Sciences and Economics Review 2021-06-14 2021-06-14 2 2 305 314 10.36902/rjsser-vol2-iss2-2021(305-314) Measuring Women’s Glass Ceiling Beliefs in relation with Career Advancement Satisfaction – A Study of Service Sector of Pakistan https://ojs.rjsser.org.pk/index.php/rjsser/article/view/344 <p><em>This research study aims to measure the women's glass ceiling beliefs with women's career advancement satisfaction in the service sector of Pakistan. Denial, resilience, acceptance, and resignation are part of the glass ceiling beliefs of women along with career advancement satisfaction. The basic purpose of the study is to explore variables to analyze the impact of women's attitude towards breaking the glass ceiling and how does it impact their career-related factors. As the composition of the workforce grows to at least fifty percent women, female executives remain the exception to the rule. Facing unique obstacles in advancement, women stagnate as they move up the corporate "ladder." Online surveys and questionnaires were distributed among women working in the banking sector employees in the suburbs of Islamabad, Rawalpindi, Wah, and Taxila Cantt through a systematic random sampling technique. The results mainly are of importance to analyze the career graph of women and to identify whether gender discrimination is present in the banks or not. This research paper was written in a context that will be impactful in analyzing women's attitudes towards glass ceilings and also throw light on its effect on their career advancement satisfaction.</em></p> Samar Masood Dr. Samina Nawab Dr. Khuram Shafi Copyright (c) 2021 Research Journal of Social Sciences and Economics Review 2021-06-14 2021-06-14 2 2 315 324 10.36902/rjsser-vol2-iss2-2021(315-324) Online Education and its Effectiveness as an Alternative Approach to Professional Qualification: A Case Study of Overseas Pakistanis in Saudi Arabia https://ojs.rjsser.org.pk/index.php/rjsser/article/view/341 <p><em>The development of a nation is highly dependent on the quality of education it provides to its citizens. A country's educational level decides its position among the world's nations. Countries that excel in the fields of education lead the world. Education is a game-changer that transforms a society by removing barriers to development and is the tool for empowering people. Education is learning where a community's knowledge, habits, and skills are passed down from generation to generation. One of the aspects of education is E-education which means "the use of any electronic technology to help in the acquisition and creation of information and understanding”. The purpose of this paper is to give an in-depth understanding of e-learning along with its history, classification, levels, and reasons why it is important. However, the main objective of the paper is to assess the effectiveness of online education as an alternative approach to the professional qualification of overseas Pakistanis in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The paper shows that </em><em>online learning can bring positive results by providing flexible access to instructions, making learning easier for those who cannot attend traditional schools, and enhances teacher-students ratios. The paper is descriptive and analytical where mostly secondary data has been used and only a few telephonic interviews have been conducted with those who have spent life in KSA. Similarly, data have also been obtained from the various organizations which are actively involved in e-learning.</em></p> Dr. Zahir Shah Dr. Jamal Shah Mian Muhammad Saleem Copyright (c) 2021 Research Journal of Social Sciences and Economics Review 2021-06-22 2021-06-22 2 2 325 333 10.36902/rjsser-vol2-iss2-2021(325-333) A Study of Existence of Grade Inflation Perceived by University Administrators and Teachers at Higher Education Level https://ojs.rjsser.org.pk/index.php/rjsser/article/view/355 <p><em>Grade inflation occurs when there is an upward trend in awarded grades with the absence of a matching improvement in academic excellence over a period of time. This phenomenon has become a norm in public and private universities of Pakistan. Even though most academic institutions are aware of the dangers of grade inflation, it is typically overlooked because its trend is very hard to measure. In this context, main objective of this analytical study was to examine the identification of existence of grade inflation in public sector universities of Punjab. To achieve the objective of this research study descriptive research design was used. For this purpose, university administrators and teachers’ perceptions were explored regarding existence, intensity and nature of grades through survey questionnaire at university level in Panjab. By using the simple random sampling, accessible faculty members and administrators from nine public sector universities of Punjab were approached via email to participate in an online questionnaire (five-points Likert scale statements, yes/no items and one open-ended). A total 276 filled questionnaires were received which reflected the perceptions of university teachers and administrators regarding the identification of existence of grade inflation from 71 administrators and 205 teachers after reminding them 3 to 4 times reminders with the interval 4 to 5 days. Reliability analysis of the questionnaire was also computed through Cronbach's Alpha Model where the value of 0.814 was deducted which showed that the scale was very consistent and reliable. Collected data was tabulated, analysis and interpreted in the light of objectives of study. Descriptive statistics (i.e., Frequency Counts, Percentage, Mean, and SD) and thematic analysis were applied to obtain the answers of research question. Data analysis revealed that university administrators and teachers’ perceptions data suggested that university teachers in universities of Punjab moderately believe in existence of grade inflation in their departments. Highest percentage (80.8%) of faculty members showed their consensus that grade inflation exists in their institutions. Furthermore, they also showed the consensus that grade inflation occurs to the extent of 58% in their institutions. It was suggested that further studies can be made to explore the measures to control the grade inflation at university level that could support them to develop policies concerning uniform grading system, both at institutional and departmental level. Specific policies, clear criteria, procedures and detailed guidelines for powerful and fruitful implementation of the grading system could be developed.</em></p> Dr. Erum Aslam Khan Dr. Hina Munir Dr. Afrina Afzal Copyright (c) 2021 Research Journal of Social Sciences and Economics Review 2021-06-22 2021-06-22 2 2 334 341 10.36902/rjsser-vol2-iss2-2021(334-341) ‘Settled in the Heaven and Celebrated on Earth’: A Sociolinguistic Study of Written Wedding Invitation Genre in Pakistan https://ojs.rjsser.org.pk/index.php/rjsser/article/view/289 <p><em>Human communication seems to be a multifaceted, multidimensional and multilayered phenomenon.&nbsp; Sociolinguistics helps us explore how society and language (spoken and written) are intricately intertwined. In this context, this study seeks to analyze the linguistic and semiotic features of written wedding invitation cards printed and used in Pakistan. &nbsp;Weddings unite not only two individuals but they also merge families, tribes and clans.&nbsp; In fact, Islam introduces a family as a basic unit of world peace. So, weddings and wedding processes are important.&nbsp; How are such social ceremonies of happiness and joy communicated in Pakistan? How do Pakistani wedding invitations offer us access to deeper recesses of Pakistani culture and traditions? Theoretically, this study was based on the model of genre analysis by Bhatia (1993) and Swales (1990). Researchers in the field of sociolinguistics have analyzed the wedding invitation genre in Arabic, Iranian, and Christian, Muslim, Chinese, and Indian and Pakistani cultures.&nbsp; For the current study, a sample of 60 wedding invitation cards in Urdu and English was collected in the city of Hasilpur, Southern Punjab, Pakistan. The randomly collected cards were real wedding invitation cards published and used in weddings in 2015-2021. The results of the study revealed that the examined wedding cards featured seven mandatory and one optional move. The obligatory moves were found almost in all cards. The occurrence of optional moves, however, varied from card to card. The semiotic features were also channelized by the wedding hosts or senders of the cards to convey the nuptial messages effectively.&nbsp; Caste system, religious values, religious texts, economic positions, man-woman relationship, preference for hijab, architectural glimpses, musical instruments, traditional and modern means of transport and many other aspects of Pakistani cultures were skillfully depicted in the wedding invitation cards.</em></p> Dr. Riaz Hussain Habiba Qadeer Dr. Muhammad Asif Copyright (c) 2021 Research Journal of Social Sciences and Economics Review 2021-06-24 2021-06-24 2 2 342 352 10.36902/rjsser-vol2-iss2-2021(342-352) Quality Improvement in the Secondary Schools through District Ranking Initiative in Punjab https://ojs.rjsser.org.pk/index.php/rjsser/article/view/348 <p><em>The present study titled Quality Improvement in the Secondary Schools through District Ranking Initiative in Punjab" was aimed to study the improvement in public secondary schools of Punjab as a result of the initiatives taken by the previous Government of Punjab (2013-2018) following Punjab Education Sector Reforms Program (PESRP). The government's district ranking initiative in public secondary schools of Punjab. The multistage sampling technique was used to select 800 secondary school teachers from 160 randomly selected high schools of five districts in Punjab. The survey questionnaire for teachers with reliability (.904) was used. Expert opinion was taken to check the face and content validity of the tool. Analysis of quantitative data was done using SPSS, and ANOVA and t-tests were applied besides descriptive statistics. The study results showed statistically significant differences among the satisfaction levels of respondents towards the government's district ranking initiative based on gender, locality, and experience. Urban teachers were more satisfied with the 'government's district ranking initiative, while female teachers were more satisfied with the government's initiative. Results of the study are beneficial for policymakers, government officials, and stakeholders in decision-making and planning for future initiatives. Major recommendations include supporting learning elements in urban and rural schools so that all the students may benefit equally instead of subjectivity locality-wise.</em></p> Shahbaz Hamid Dr. Seema Arif Ayesha Afzal Copyright (c) 2021 Research Journal of Social Sciences and Economics Review 2021-06-24 2021-06-24 2 2 353 361 10.36902/rjsser-vol2-iss2-2021(353-361) An Analytical Study of Learning Styles and Achievement Motivation of Students at Secondary School Level https://ojs.rjsser.org.pk/index.php/rjsser/article/view/353 <p><em>The present study was aimed to examine different learning styles of the students and level of students' achievement motivation at secondary school level; investigate the relationship of learning styles and achievement motivation of students at secondary school level. A multilevel mixed-method sampling technique was used. A total of 250 male and 250 females students studying in public sector schools located in Tehsil Rawalpindi were taken as a sample of the study. The study was descriptive in nature. Data were collected by using two questionnaires. Learning Styles Questionnaire based on the theory of Fleming's VAK Model (2001) and a questionnaire regarding achievement motivation based on McInerney's (2003) theory. Collected data were analyzed by using descriptive statistics; by using mean scores and inferential statistics; by using Pearson-Correlation. Major conclusions of the study showed that visual and auditory learning styles were the most favorite learning styles of the students and students were found often motivated to their achievement. Furthermore, there was a significant positive relationship between learning styles and students' achievement motivation. There was a significant positive relationship between the two components, visual and auditory learning styles of the VAK Model with that three components, social, mastery, and performance goals of achievement motivation. Based on conclusions, the following recommendations were made; the teacher may use audio-visual aids and hands-on practices in class. Moreover, this is the obligation of teachers to motivate students by fulfilling their social, mastery and performance goal.</em></p> Nayyer Sultana Dr. Shazia Zamir Dr. Hukam Dad Copyright (c) 2021 Research Journal of Social Sciences and Economics Review 2021-06-24 2021-06-24 2 2 362 369 10.36902/rjsser-vol2-iss2-2021(362-369) Relationship of Examination Preparation Styles and Academic Achievement of Students from Different Faculties at University Level https://ojs.rjsser.org.pk/index.php/rjsser/article/view/361 <p><em>Students have individual differences with different sets of behaviors, learning styles and attitudes towards learning. This research study dealt to investigate the relationship between students’ exam preparation styles and their academic achievement of different faculties. The participants of the study were the 1324 who were enrolled in different seven universities of Punjab, Pakistan. The study was descriptive in nature and utilized a quantitative-descriptive correlational research design. To achieve the objective of study a survey questionnaire was used based on the examination preparation styles. Data were organized and analyzed through mean, standard deviation, correlation, t- test and regression coefficient. The results of correlation showed a relationship between students’ examination preparation styles and their achievement. T-test results indicate a significant difference among the students’ exam preparation styles in the three faculties. Based on the results, this study concluded that exam preparation styles can affect the students’ performance. It is recommended that the faculty members should focus on their teaching methods which guide the students for the adaptations of their learning methods. With the help of these study findings, faculty members will be able to apply the appropriate teaching strategies according to the different faculties-based requirements.</em></p> Sadia Mushtaq Dr. Muhammad Zafar Iqbal Dr. Erum Aslam Khan Copyright (c) 2021 Research Journal of Social Sciences and Economics Review 2021-06-26 2021-06-26 2 2 370 377 10.36902/rjsser-vol2-iss2-2021(370-377) India-China Economic Relations: Implications for Pakistan https://ojs.rjsser.org.pk/index.php/rjsser/article/view/351 <p><em>India-China revisited their foreign policy post-Cold War. Bilateral economic relation was initiated to enhance trade and this was not restricted to trade but limited to just trade but also extended to various energy and developmental projects. The ameliorating relations between these two countries created concern for already Chinese dependent country i.e. Pakistan. The apprehension was well justified as the improved relations of China with India would eventually mean China’s attention is shifted to a relatively stable and stronger nation that would not only provide access to China of a route to Central Asian countries but will also improve China's diplomatic and economic standing in the world. Although Pakistan has got the support of China in many national as well as international conflicts, a stable partner like India will lead to progress and improvement of trade and co-operation in another field. This would make China rethink its partnership with Pakistan. However, Pakistan has attempted to keep China's interest at distance from India's obvious allure; it would be a matter of time before China moves its attention to India if Pakistan's contemporary domestic economic, political, and security conditions do not improve shortly. Consequently, India-China's economic relations can pave the way for a much stronger alliance, which would cause a severe geostrategic and geopolitical hindrance for Pakistan.</em></p> Sabahat Jaleel Bakhtiar Ahmed Saqib Wahab Mahar Copyright (c) 2021 Research Journal of Social Sciences and Economics Review 2021-06-30 2021-06-30 2 2 378 385 10.36902/rjsser-vol2-iss2-2021(378-385) Exploring Teachers Perceptions about Aggressive Classroom Management at Primary Level: A Qualitative Case Study https://ojs.rjsser.org.pk/index.php/rjsser/article/view/354 <p><em>It is known that aggressive classroom management style harms students mentally, physically, and emotionally. This study aimed to explore teachers' perceptions of aggressive classroom management at the primary level in Pakistan. The study was conducted while using the qualitative case study approach. Data were collected through self-constructed interviews with four teachers from a private school in Lahore, Pakistan. Teachers did not appreciate aggressive classroom management styles. They emphasized that this style has a vastly negative impact on students and develops negative behavior in students such as fear, denial, anxiety, conflict, disrespect, low self-esteem, and disruptive behaviors. The aggressive classroom management style also affects teacher-student relationships. It is also suggested to adopt a student-centered and friendly management style in the classrooms. Participants also suggested that there should be teaching licenses for those who want to adopt the teaching profession. Teachers should identify the root causes of childhood disruptive behavior, and teachers also need training on emotional management.</em></p> Narjis Khatoon Diana Yaar Muhammad Muhammad Gohar Iftikhar Copyright (c) 2021 Research Journal of Social Sciences and Economics Review 2021-07-01 2021-07-01 2 2 386 398 10.36902/rjsser-vol2-iss2-2021(386-398) E-learning in Times of the Coronavirus from the Perspective of Research Students https://ojs.rjsser.org.pk/index.php/rjsser/article/view/359 <p><em>The Covid flare-up in Kosovo has outcomes in all everyday issues. This inclusion is especially recognizable in educating and learning, particularly at the college level, from the old style (conventional) type of full or fractional instructing to e-learning. The change of interest and the need to accomplish the objectives of schooling depends on the assessment of understudies unexpectedly. The subject of this examination is the way understudies surveyed this fast change from customary educating and figuring out how to e-realizing, which thus occurred in December 2014. 2020. 551 Kosovar undergrad and expert understudies take part in the logical exploration. The examination was directed by The Newfound. The examination of the outcomes, their relative outcomes, and proposals, the data that can serve understudies and organizations, and government dynamic designs to adjust instruction strategy in the Nova period with digitalization, where e-learning is turning into a need even in non-industrial nations. On the off chance that the work permits us to comprehend that advancement in the field of schooling is forced by the scourge of methods of instructing and learning later and that over this we should plan ourselves as people and as a public all in all.</em></p> Dr. Muhammad Shoaib Khan Pathan Dr. Urooj Talpur Prof. Dr. Parveen Munshi Copyright (c) 2021 Research Journal of Social Sciences and Economics Review 2021-07-04 2021-07-04 2 2 399 407 10.36902/rjsser-vol2-iss2-2021(399-407) Unemployment Insurance Protection Claims and Covid-19 https://ojs.rjsser.org.pk/index.php/rjsser/article/view/358 <p><em>We inspected the effect of a few elements on highway contrasts in week-by-week joblessness benefits and zeroed in precisely on the causes during the underlying old-fashioned epidemic in the United States. We investigate the outcomes of COVID-19 circumstances, government arrangements that react to COVID-19, the important arrangements of the bureaucratic Covid help, support, and financial safety (REPAIRS) enactment, and the idea of national frugality. We note that in the preliminary not many long stretches of the pandemic, joblessness was set off by shopper responses to the Covid. We note that in the period from March 21 to 25, when more positions in the areas generally influenced by the infection put occupations in, and the individuals who made requests to close unimportant organizations, gotten higher reports of joblessness. We discovered blended proof that joblessness benefits influence the number of employment forms. In any case, we discovered no proof that-as the capacity to exertion at home-based has decreased the expansion in joblessness throughout this historical, nor proof finance insurance program has influenced the degree of new jobless cases.</em></p> Dr. Muhammad Shoaib Khan Pathan Dr. Ghulam Muhammad Mangnejo Parkash Copyright (c) 2021 Research Journal of Social Sciences and Economics Review 2021-07-04 2021-07-04 2 2 408 417 10.36902/rjsser-vol2-iss2-2021(408-417) Institutionalized Reciprocity and Exchange on Punjabi Weddings https://ojs.rjsser.org.pk/index.php/rjsser/article/view/347 <p><em>Marriage ceremonies in Punjab involve rich and elaborate ritual performance. This requires social participation and support. Reciprocity on rituals is widely pervasive, guided by unwritten often unsaid yet known and deeply internalized codes. These rules act as social facts in Durkhemian sense.&nbsp; Based on qualitative research and extracting data primarily from participant observation and indepth interviews, this paper highlights extensive and embedded systems of reciprocity and exchange typical of Punjabi weddings. Laag Vehar, a compound term, encompasses roles, expectations and appropriate reciprocal behavior on different occasions. Obligatory gifts and services are key features of laag vehar. Generalized, balanced and premium reciprocity are the major forms of reciprocity observed on weddings. They provide insight to the social system, solidarity networks, socio-economic bonds and relations and reflect on social status as well as social hierarchy.</em></p> Muhammad Haris Mateen Awan Saadia Abid Copyright (c) 2021 Research Journal of Social Sciences and Economics Review 2021-07-17 2021-07-17 2 2 418 428 10.36902/rjsser-vol2-iss2-2021(418-428) Analyzing factors affecting the performance of Pakistan Stock Exchange https://ojs.rjsser.org.pk/index.php/rjsser/article/view/362 <p>The paper is aimed to determine the factors that affect the performance of Pakistan Stock Market. The study identifies the determinants which cause volatility in the Stock Market. Pakistan Stock Exchange, being the only platform to provide equity funding for corporations, has got major attention of investors over the decades. After several stock market crises such as March 2008 where investors lost millions and billions of rupees, it is important for both investors and investees to know the major factors that drive Stock Exchange performance. The research is qualitative in nature and specifically content analysis tool is used to analyze data. The interviews are conducted from various people who keep on participating in stock markets i.e. fund managers, research analysts, directors, CEOs, equity traders of various brokerage houses, fund management and asset management companies. After interviews, major themes are covered based on repeated answers such as fundamental factors, macroeconomic factors, political instability, foreign investment and other factors.</p> <p>The research concludes that the major drivers of the stock market are fundamental factors such as corporate earnings, dividend yield, bonus and company size, macroeconomic factors such as interest rates, inflation and balance of payment, foreign investment which is indicated by Foreign Portfolio Investment (FIPI) and Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) and political instability in the country.</p> Saqib Wahab Mahar Dr. Ghulam Muhammad Mangnejo Muhammad Ali Brohi Copyright (c) 2021 Research Journal of Social Sciences and Economics Review 2021-07-19 2021-07-19 2 2 429 435 10.36902/rjsser-vol2-iss2-2021(429-435) Academic Dishonesty among Youth: Faculty and Students’ Perceptions about Plagiarism in Research Work https://ojs.rjsser.org.pk/index.php/rjsser/article/view/372 <p><em>Plagiarism is responsible for decline in academic integrity among scholars at higher education level that also hinders their genuine learning and development. This study intended to explore university students’ perceptions about prevalence and causes of plagiarism practices in academic work. It also attempted to explore measures for reducing the academic dishonesty as suggested by university faculty. A sample of 200 post graduate students and 40 teachers from the social sciences departments of two universities was selected conveniently. A Likert-type scale was adopted for data collection. The findings indicated that students were involved in stealing the ideas of others and using unpublished material from the internet without acknowledgment. The main causes as indicated by students included; lack of interest, poor academic skills, no obvious penalties, the fear of failure, busy schedules, easy access to internet sources, and the stress of meeting deadlines. The faculty emphasized to foster academic integrity among scholars and improve their academic skills along with strict implementation of rules and regulations regarding plagiarism. They also suggested that supervisors should develop awareness among scholars about plagiarism and its consequences along with training them in proper referencing and use of Turnitin to promote originality in research work.</em></p> Dr. Riffat-un-Nisa Awan Dr. Ghazala Naureen Ghazanfar Ali Copyright (c) 2021 Research Journal of Social Sciences and Economics Review 2021-08-04 2021-08-04 2 2 436 443 10.36902/rjsser-vol2-iss2-2021(436-443) Black Lives Matter: Critical Analysis of McCarthy’s The Road (2006) in the Backdrop of George Floyd’s Murder https://ojs.rjsser.org.pk/index.php/rjsser/article/view/365 <p><em>A large body of American literature deals with the subject of immigration from other parts of world to America and clashes within varied cultures in America. The latest murder of Gorge Floyd, a black American, very inhumanly by white Police Officers has once again brought into focus the issue violence with the idea: the other is not acceptable. This incident has once again raised the ideas of nation, transnationalism and Americanness: the main area of concern in the novels of a contemporary American novelist Cormac McCarthy. His novel, The Road (2006) is post-apocalyptic novel. The central idea of McCarthy’s The Road is making a new world after a big apocalypse with an end of violence and killing of the ‘Other’ while Geroge Flyd’s killing brings this idea to a reverse gear. Its reason appears to be the violence and bloodshed rooted in American soil, in American history. Through the portrayal of a post-catastrophic new world order, the writer asks his American readers to acknowledge the common humanity possessed by the ‘Other’ through transnational reconciliation.</em></p> Dr. Muhammad Babar Jamil Dr. Muhammad Akbar Khan Dr. Shabbir Ahmad Copyright (c) 2021 Research Journal of Social Sciences and Economics Review 2021-08-06 2021-08-06 2 2 444 449 10.36902/rjsser-vol2-iss2-2021(444-449) Does a CEO’s Cultural Background Affect Corporate Social Responsibility during the Financial Crises? https://ojs.rjsser.org.pk/index.php/rjsser/article/view/379 <p><em>This study has utilized a large dataset containing 10269 firm-year observations from 2001 to 2015. Interestingly, the first ever relationship between CEOs’ cultural background and corporate social responsibility during the 2008-2009 financial crises has been reported. The empirical results suggest that the individualistic CEOs cultural background is positively and significantly related with the corporate social responsibility. This study reports the first ever evidence that during the financial crises, individualistic CEOs cultural background is negatively and significantly related with the corporate social responsibility. This study shows the importance of how the CEOs decisions varies during the financial crises. The pooled data methodology has been employed to generate econometric results where the empirical evidences opens-up new avenues for future research that could further evaluate the impact of CEOs cultural background on other firms’ policies.</em></p> Muhammad Naeem Naeem Ullah Syed Muhammad Ali Tirmizi Copyright (c) 2021 Research Journal of Social Sciences and Economics Review 2021-08-15 2021-08-15 2 2 450 454 10.36902/rjsser-vol2-iss2-2021(450-454)