Research Journal of Social Sciences and Economics Review (RJSSER) https://ojs.rjsser.org.pk/index.php/rjsser <p><iframe src="https://rjsser.org.pk/" width="100%" height="4550"> </iframe></p> Sir Syed College of Education Katlang Mardan Khyber Pakhtunkhwa en-US Research Journal of Social Sciences and Economics Review (RJSSER) 2707-9015 Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR)’s Pattern of Multinational Enterprises in context of Global Reporting Initiative-GRI-G4: Evidence from Pakistan https://ojs.rjsser.org.pk/index.php/rjsser/article/view/202 <p><em>The study aims to explore the CSR's structure over some time (2016-2019) and draw a distinct pattern about the MNEs operating in Pakistan. Content analysis was used to extract the contextual meaning from the available data to set up the foundation for further research questions and draw a basic CSR prototype through an inductive method to develop a theory. CSR's structure is scattered and irregular in Pakistan. The exact pattern and involvement in specific dimensions are not defined, and the tendency is not identical even in the same industry. All enterprises operating in Pakistan need to exercise the updated corporate governance styles, practice both local and international CSR standards to achieve maximum corporate benefits. CSR concept is a 'time &amp; space' sensitive phenomenon and receptive to domestic culture and institution, especially in developing countries. This research study has tried to sketch a fundamental and general but exact pattern of CSR activities observed within MNEs working in Pakistan.</em></p> Maqsood Hayat Shehzad Khan Kiran Alim Copyright (c) 2021 Research Journal of Social Sciences and Economics Review (RJSSER) 2021-03-07 2021-03-07 2 1 1 15 10.36902/rjsser-vol2-iss1-2021(1-15) Viability of Visibility of Translator: Looking back and beyond Venuti https://ojs.rjsser.org.pk/index.php/rjsser/article/view/210 <p><em>In translation and cultural studies, the issue of (in) visibility of translator has taken its firm grounds especially after the publication of Venuti’s (1995) The Invisibility of Translator and its subsequent row of arguments and counter-arguments for and against the theoretical perspective as given in the book. The current research paper is an attempt to have an overview of Venuti’s and his critics’ arguments and add to the existing discussion of (in) visibility of translator, foreignization, and domestication of translation and projection and preservation of source culture during the act of translation by resisting the linguistic and cultural hegemony of English. This paper has, broadly, three main divisions of ideas: a firstly brief overview of Venuti’s arguments; secondly, a brief overview of Venuti’s most recent critics’ arguments like Pym, Tymoczko, Baker, Cronin, and Shamma; and thirdly the researchers own arguments about the issue based on the detailed analysis of previous literature. Conducting a close reading, as a popular method of analysis in qualitative research methodology, of the literature related to the issue of visibility of translator, the researcher has tried to suggest that the act of translation, during the voluntary act of foreignization, adds a concocted essence to the real spirit of the literary piece of work which neither remains beneficial for the assertion of the individuality of the source culture nor it helps very much in the resistance of the dominating language and culture. At the cost of aesthetic pleasure, the foreignization method also entails the sacrifice of literary meanings and effects.</em></p> Sajjad Ahmad Sana Aziz Umar Sajjad Copyright (c) 2021 Research Journal of Social Sciences and Economics Review (RJSSER) 2021-03-07 2021-03-07 2 1 16 21 10.36902/rjsser-vol2-iss1-2021(16-21) Lecture Feminine: A Study of Uzma Aslam Khan’s Novel Thinner than Skin https://ojs.rjsser.org.pk/index.php/rjsser/article/view/214 <p><em>The present study focuses on feminine writing in the context of Pakistani English writings. This study aims to explain one of the main strands of feminism i.e. l’ecriture feminine which means feminine writing. The current study is based on the representation of l’ecriture feminine in Uzma Aslam Khan’s novel, Thinner than Skin. The researcher has collected the data from the selected novel and made an in-depth analysis of the characters and scenes of this novel. Female body parts are pictured by the narrator at different points in the novel. Female characters remain the center of discussion in the selected narrative. It is identified from the discussion that all the major elements of L’ecriture feminine are portrayed in the text of the novel.</em></p> Asfandyar Shah Sajjad Ahmad Umar Sajjad Copyright (c) 2021 Research Journal of Social Sciences and Economics Review (RJSSER) 2021-03-07 2021-03-07 2 1 22 29 10.36902/rjsser-vol2-iss1-2021(22-29) Education in Pakistan: Are the Articles 25A and 37(b) Closing the Gender Gap in KP Province? https://ojs.rjsser.org.pk/index.php/rjsser/article/view/216 <p><em>This study aims to analyze the effectiveness of articles 25A and 37(b) in closing the gender gap in Pakistan's KP province. This stated Article explains the right to free and compulsory education up to the secondary level. The literature review has shown that two types of factors can affect achieving the goals defined by articles 25A and 37(b). Article 25A provides constitutional efforts to provide free and compulsory education in the chapter of fundamental rights. Article 37(b) enjoined the respective institutions' obligation to remove illiteracy and provide free and compulsory education to the secondary level within the minimum possible period. Clause (f) of the same Article declares how the State will enable Pakistani citizens to participate in national life through education. These claims were named as "efforts." The efforts are under human control. Some factors act against these stated efforts, known as "circumstances," which are natural and out of human control, such as gender gaps, poverty, Pashtunwali culture, etc. In Pakistan, the "efforts" are made to achieve the stated Articles' targets. Still, no policy was developed to answer the "circumstances." This attitude extends hurdles in educating KP girls. Suggestions were made to eradicate these "circumstances" entirely or partially to the extent possible. If these "circumstances" were removed, the girls' ratio of gross enrolment rate would be at least at a high level as boys, and thus the vision explained by the stated Articles can be achieved.</em></p> Dr. Niaz Ali Miss. Rafia Naz Ali Miss. Johar Wajahat Copyright (c) 2021 Research Journal of Social Sciences and Economics Review (RJSSER) 2021-03-07 2021-03-07 2 1 30 35 10.36902/rjsser-vol2-iss1-2021(30-35) God in the Mystic Poetry of Khawaja Ghulam Farid and American Transcendentalist Ralph Waldo Emerson https://ojs.rjsser.org.pk/index.php/rjsser/article/view/217 <p><em>The poetry of Khawaja Ghulam Farid has a world of meanings. Contemporaneously in the West, there was a parallel line of poets who were greatly influenced by Eastern thought and philosophy in their Transcendentalist poetry. Their poetry also contains ideas about the reality of God. Ralph Waldo Emerson is considered as ‘The Father of Transcendentalism'. The present study attempts to explore how far the poetic thought of Khawaja Farid is reflected in the transcendentalist poetry of Emerson who is the leading poet of this movement. The affinities between the mystic philosophy of the Unity of Being embraced by Khawaja Farid and Transcendentalist Monism have been traced and it has been explored how this philosophy places man about God. This comparative study highlights the philosophical and spiritual affinities between Khawaja Farid and Transcendentalist Emerson and points out the differences of thought as expressed through their respective poetry.</em></p> Romana Jabeen Bukhari Tahira Asgher Sana Tahir Copyright (c) 2021 Research Journal of Social Sciences and Economics Review (RJSSER) 2021-03-07 2021-03-07 2 1 36 44 10.36902/rjsser-vol2-iss1-2021(36-44) Golding’s Narrowed Attempts at Defining Human Nature in Lord of the Flies https://ojs.rjsser.org.pk/index.php/rjsser/article/view/215 <p><em>This paper is an attempt to prove the assumption that William Golding is a failure who claims to have written his novel Lord of the Flies on the idea of human nature. He considers that he wrote about human nature in general, but he is a Western and has those ideas of being superior to other people. He takes all his characters from among the English boys. Not a single character who is shown as civilized belongs to a marginalized race. This act of Golding reveals his ethnocentric attitude. He does not bother to include a female character in this novel. All his characters are male. It shows his androcentric nature. Though he tries to put the evil like every man whenever he wants to show the brutality or savagery of a human, in the form of his chosen English boys, he portrays them as the hunters of Africa or paints them with mud. In doing so, he is affiliating savagery with the blacks and Indians. Thus, he propagates the same stereotypical concept of “Orients” as uncivilized and savages. Golding relies solely on the biological factors of human nature. He ignores to consider any social problem for the conflict of the two groups of boys. These social factors may include political system, religion, or Marxism. This research work has proved that Golding’s self-critique of human nature in the novel is a failure on his part.</em></p> Rabia Khan Sajjad Ahmad Ali Ammar Copyright (c) 2021 Research Journal of Social Sciences and Economics Review (RJSSER) 2021-03-07 2021-03-07 2 1 45 50 10.36902/rjsser-vol2-iss1-2021(45-50) Impact of University Climate on Teachers’ Morale in Public Sector Universities in Pakistan https://ojs.rjsser.org.pk/index.php/rjsser/article/view/220 <p><em>An institution that works for individuals or is fretful with fulfilling the requirements of students may have a climate where the teachers sense an assured egotism and self-importance, have their place in that organization. Various factors are involved to get the highest competence and output from the teachers i.e. service safety, positive institutional climate, and good income. The self-confidence of professors and a positive university climate play an important role to give the students a quality education. This study identified the university atmosphere and examined the influence of the university environment on the confidence of professors. A mixed-methods approach was used to perform the study.&nbsp; The initial seven plus ten declarations on the tool signify the exposed environment, and the preceding seven plus ten avowals represent the confined environment. A self-developed morale scale and face-to-face meetings were steered for data collection. The population of the study was 4210 teachers and 350 heads of departments in Punjab province. The sample was 35 leaders, 255 male and 171 female teachers from public sector universities in Punjab, using proportional, and stratified random sampling techniques. Tested the readability test of the revisions with participants, the null hypotheses were tested. Both data were analyzed with quantitative and qualitative analytical tools that followed the content analysis technique. The results showed that most public sector universities in Pakistan have an open climate like a closed university climate. However, it was found that noteworthy variance existed in the ethical level of teachers working in open and closed atmospheres.</em></p> Nosheen Swar Dr. Samina Malik Dr. N. B. Jumani Copyright (c) 2021 Research Journal of Social Sciences and Economics Review (RJSSER) 2021-03-07 2021-03-07 2 1 51 59 10.36902/rjsser-vol2-iss1-2021(51-59) Do Women Represent Women? An Analysis of Bills Introduced by Women Members of the National Assembly of Pakistan https://ojs.rjsser.org.pk/index.php/rjsser/article/view/222 <p><em>This study is an attempt to evaluate the impact of the presence of women in the National Assembly of Pakistan. It analyses the effect of the inclusion of women in the legislative bodies on the policies and laws of the country. With increasing demand and participation of women in politics the question of the impact of women presence in the legislative bodies arises. This study makes an analysis of the bills introduced by women members in the National Assembly and categorizes it under different headings. The study concludes that women members were more interested in resolving issues of women and piloted women related agenda to the floor of the house but this concern does not ensures any substantive change in policy making due to the influence of other variables i.e. method of election on reserved seats for women and party affiliations etc.</em></p> Shehla Gul Prof. Dr Naushad Khan Nasir Khan Copyright (c) 2021 Research Journal of Social Sciences and Economics Review (RJSSER) 2021-03-07 2021-03-07 2 1 60 70 10.36902/rjsser-vol2-iss1-2021(60-70) Freedom and Desire: A Quest for Spiritual Journey in James Joyce’s Novel Ulysses/A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man https://ojs.rjsser.org.pk/index.php/rjsser/article/view/227 <p><em>This study, Freedom, and Desire: A quest for a spiritual journey in the novel by James Joyce, describes the journey of the main character of the story from his adolescence to the best way of conceptualizing the dynamic, multilateral relationship between individual experience and socio-cultural scope, since it recognizes the causal significance of culture but also recognizes individual choice and changes. The researcher examines the true desire which enables him to embrace his creative spirits “the actual experiences” which also symbolize freedom. This claim is formed by contemplating how many historical shifts in the socio-cultural context, i.e. the increase in freedom of choice, the shift in interpersonal patterns, the loss of traditional values, the loss of religious understanding, and the increasing conflict between the desire for individuality and the complexity of achieving it, have led to changes in the essence of true intentions and modern personhood. For this research, a qualitative method is adopted in the framework of Locke on Freedom (2015). It also points out and aims at the need to establish a new perspective on the provision of spiritual treatment in the field of freedom and desire, which focuses on improving the particular spiritual journey of the person, rather than simply reassuring spiritual distress. A man should not have to restrict himself to limited ideas, for this one has to go beyond limitation to change his mind which is the ultimate reality of advancement in life.</em></p> Muhammad Bilal Nasim Ullah Khan Syed Qasim Shah Copyright (c) 2021 Research Journal of Social Sciences and Economics Review (RJSSER) 2021-03-07 2021-03-07 2 1 71 78 10.36902/rjsser-vol2-iss1-2021(71-78) Analytical Study of Pedagogical Practices of Abul Hasan Ashari (270 AH ...330 AH) https://ojs.rjsser.org.pk/index.php/rjsser/article/view/223 <p><em>Abu al Hasan al-Ashari is measured to be a great as well as famous scholar of theology. He competed with philosophers with the power of his knowledge. He was a famous religious scholar of the Abbasi period. During the heyday of Islam, two schools of thought became famous. One school of thought became famous as the Motazilies and the other discipline of thought became known as the Ash'arites. Abu al-Hasan al-Ash'ari remained a supporter of the Mu'tazilites for forty years. Then there was a disagreement with Mu'tazilah about the issue of value. Imam al-Ghazali is one of the leading preachers of his Ash'arite school of thought. Abu al-Hasan al-Ash'ari inherited a passion for collecting books. As a child, he used to collect books from his hobby. Sometimes there are very difficult places in the path of knowledge, only a real student can pass through these places safely. He has been remembered by the Islamic world in very high words. There was a student who drank the ocean of knowledge but his thirst was not quenched. And the thirst of a real student is never quenched. Attempts have been made to review his life, education, and services in the Islamic sciences.</em></p> Dr. Hashmat Begum Dr. Hafiz Muhammad Ibrar Ullah Dr. Samina Begum Copyright (c) 2021 Research Journal of Social Sciences and Economics Review (RJSSER) 2021-03-07 2021-03-07 2 1 79 82 10.36902/rjsser-vol2-iss1-2021(79-82) Structure and Composition of Board’s Committees: Analysis of Pakistan International Airlines Corporation Limited https://ojs.rjsser.org.pk/index.php/rjsser/article/view/226 <p><em>This study aimed to explore the composition of BODs committees in PIACL. Secondary data from Annual Reports, Act, Rules and Regulations of the corporation in general and SECP recommendations i.e., the codes of CG in particular were collected. Data were analyzed in MS-Office 2016 version using MS-Excel and MS-Word. Obtained results are, the BODs can exercise their powers to form the board’s various committees, but at the same time BODs must execute their responsibilities focusing on objectives of the corporation and larger interest of stockholders in good faith and judgment, especially executing authority for the establishment of AC. BODs must confirm that none of the member's interests conflicts with the objectives of the committee. The Principal Finance Officer (CFO), inside audit officials, and officers like the chief cooperating officer (CEO) do not represent AC. However, one member of the committee must hold ample knowledge related to finance, but this does not mean that a member of the board who is linked either with financial matters or audit operations is appointed on the committee. Results further indicated that in PIACL different committees of BODs have been formed where a director in the finance committee is also appointed as member or chairman in AC in contrast to SECP codes. Similarly, various BODs have been made part of the AC, HR, IT, Procurement, Marketing (Brand and advertisement) committee. Whereas, practically it is very uncommon that an individual possesses expertise in IT, HR, Marketing, and Finance fields simultaneously as these are diverse fields, how come a person can be an expert of all disciplines at the same time? Hence, the appointment of directors in multiple committees at the same time raises a lot of questions about the independent working or decision-making of such committees.</em></p> Khalid Hussain Abbasi Ashfaque Ali Banbhan Najia Shaikh Copyright (c) 2021 Research Journal of Social Sciences and Economics Review (RJSSER) 2021-03-07 2021-03-07 2 1 83 96 10.36902/rjsser-vol2-iss1-2021(83-96) Influence of Organizational Culture, Supervisor Behavior and HRM Practices on Employee Turnover Intentions: Study of NGOs Sector of Sindh, Pakistan https://ojs.rjsser.org.pk/index.php/rjsser/article/view/228 <p><em>The primary objective of this study was to investigate the influence of organizational culture, supervisor behavior, and HRM practices over the employee turnover intentions of the NGOs sector in Sindh, Pakistan. A questionnaire survey, adopted from prior studies for data collection was used to carry out current research. The questionnaire was based on close-ended questions, having a seven-point Likert-type scale. The convenient sampling (an item of non-probability sampling) was used to collect data. A total of 180 questionnaires were distributed among employees of the NGOs sector, out of which 121 questionnaires were considered fit for data analysis and further interpretations. Initially, the data was processed in SPSS version 22.0 for analyzing descriptive statistics, whereas, the model was tested in SEM Smart-PLS. The organizational culture, supervisor behavior, and HRM practices were the significant predictors to reduce employee turnover intentions. While HRM practices and supervisor behavior contribute to decreasing employee turnover intentions. Furthermore, this study explained the interconnection of various factors such as, organizational culture, supervisor behavior, and HRM practices that cause employee turnover intentions, which were realized by actual employee turnover. The investigation provided explanations about why NGO employees intend to quit. Referring to empirical findings of current research, it is highly likely that NGOs might be able to reduce employee turnover. This research addressed specific circumstances of NGOs that cause high employee turnover, particularly in Sindh, which may be generalized at the country level.</em></p> Tauqeer Hussain Hakro Khalid Hussain Abbasi Hakim Ali Mahesar Copyright (c) 2021 Research Journal of Social Sciences and Economics Review (RJSSER) 2021-03-07 2021-03-07 2 1 97 105 10.36902/rjsser-vol2-iss1-2021(97-105) Impact of Courageous Followership towards Promoting Exemplary Leadership https://ojs.rjsser.org.pk/index.php/rjsser/article/view/229 <p><em>The current study focuses not only on developing leadership but also emphasizes the crucial role of employing the concept of followership effectively. The reason for this is that the leadership concept in the organization may not be effective without followership. Therefore, to obtain exemplary leadership, followership has to be inculcated, and that of courage embedded in it. The current study applied to reverse the lens approach in leadership and hypothesized the relation between courageous followership and exemplary leadership. The sample size of 255 was used for this research, chosen by employing convenience-sampling techniques due to Covid-19 conditions and restrictions. The data were screened and then using SPSS did analysis.&nbsp; The results show that courageous followership had an impact on exemplary leadership, meaning that courageous followers would promote exemplary leadership practices in the organizations, which can be very useful for organizations to understand and promote.</em></p> Dr. Muhammad Zia-ur-Rehman Dr. Waseem Ishaque Rimsha Zafar Copyright (c) 2021 Research Journal of Social Sciences and Economics Review (RJSSER) 2021-03-07 2021-03-07 2 1 106 113 10.36902/rjsser-vol2-iss1-2021(106-113) Effects of Sleep Disorders on Academic Achievement of Students at University Level https://ojs.rjsser.org.pk/index.php/rjsser/article/view/176 <p><em>Sleep is a physiological process essential to humans for their normal functioning. Sleep habits and problems are also influenced by physical, mental, and environmental factors such as age, gender, job, lifestyle, emotional tension, and noise. The purpose of this study was to explore the effects of sleep disorders on students' academic achievement at International Islamic University Islamabad. The objectives of the study were to: find out the causes of sleep disorders among university students and explore the effect of sleep disorders on the academic achievement of students. This study was quantitative in nature and a survey was done for data collection. The sample of the study consisted of 80 students of the Faculty of Social Sciences suffering from sleep disorder and residing in hostels. Researchers used a self-developed three-point scale for data collection. The validity of the instrument was checked through experts' opinions while the reliability of the instruments was checked through Cronbach's Alpha. The collected data were scored, tabulated, and analyzed making use of descriptive and inferential statistics i.e. mean scores and t-test through Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS 21). Results showed that late-night socializing and stress related to exams, assignments, and tests were the two top major causes of students' sleep disorders and there is a great effect of sleep disorders on the academic achievement of students.</em></p> Naila Iram Dr. Shamsa Aziz Dr. Fouzia Ajmal Copyright (c) 2021 Research Journal of Social Sciences and Economics Review (RJSSER) 2021-03-07 2021-03-07 2 1 114 119 10.36902/rjsser-vol2-iss1-2021(114-119) Exploring the Impact of Online Teaching Method on Higher Education during COVID-19 Pandemic: Students’ and Teachers’ Perspective https://ojs.rjsser.org.pk/index.php/rjsser/article/view/231 <p><em>The eruption of the COVID-19 pandemic disrupted every field of life. But its highly adverse effects were observed in the educational field. By taking into account the seriousness of COVID-19 at a global level, almost all the countries temporarily closed the physical education system that made especially higher education learners suffer at a higher rate. HECs of the different countries instructed teachers to shift physical education to the online learning teaching method (OLTM). Pakistani learners and teachers of Higher Education also adopted this innovative educational system but they faced some problems. So, the present study aimed to investigate the expediency of OLTM and problems related to it in the context of Pakistan’s Higher Education System through Online Questionnaires and Interviews. The findings of the study revealed that OLTM didn’t prove beneficial for Pakistani learners and teachers of higher education and they faced various physical, social, economic, and psychological problems.</em></p> Tahira Asgher Anum Hanif Copyright (c) 2021 Research Journal of Social Sciences and Economics Review (RJSSER) 2021-03-07 2021-03-07 2 1 120 134 10.36902/rjsser-vol2-iss1-2021(120-134) Challenging, Hindering Job Demands and Psychological Well-Being: The Mediating Role of Stress-Related Presenteeism https://ojs.rjsser.org.pk/index.php/rjsser/article/view/232 <p><em>When individuals are under stress, they cannot fully expend all their energies at work because they are distracted due to stress. This concept is termed stress-related presenteeism. The primary purpose of this research was to analyze the relationship of challenging job demands (i.e., workload) and hindering job demands (i.e., cognitive job demands) with stress-related presenteeism, and the subsequent relationship of stress-related presenteeism with psychological well-being, by using the job-demands resource model and conservation of resource theory. Data (n=211) were collected in two-time waves from bank employees of three major cities of Pakistan. The collected data were analyzed by using bootstrapping mediation analysis. Findings revealed that workload was negatively associated with stress-related presenteeism, whereas cognitive job demands were positively related to stress-related presenteeism. Stress-related presenteeism also mediated the relationships of challenging job demands and hindering job demands with psychological well-being. Implications for managers and recommendations are discussed towards the end of this study...</em></p> Dr. Nosheen Sarwat Dr. Raza Ali Dr. Tariq Iqbal Khan Copyright (c) 2021 Research Journal of Social Sciences and Economics Review (RJSSER) 2021-03-07 2021-03-07 2 1 135 143 10.36902/rjsser-vol2-iss1-2021(135-143) A Critical Discourse Analysis of Pakistani Newspapers Editorials in Coronavirus Pandemic https://ojs.rjsser.org.pk/index.php/rjsser/article/view/125 <p><em>This research explores Pakistani newspapers Editorials’ lexical, morphological, and social aspects of the coronavirus Pandemic in Pakistan under the light of the Critical Discourse Analysis angle. The focal idea is to discover the etymological decision and rhetorical questions utilized in a revealing pandemic, and how did the columnists shape readers' minds and thoughts through their words. The CDA has been used as a theoretical framework for analyzing the data. Information for this examination includes 15 Editorial randomly gathered from 100 newspapers in Pakistan. Results demonstrated the exploitation of terminologies has been shown inconvenience, fear of contagious disease, death, fear of touching, and outbreak among people. The bogus information was additionally found in newspapers. Contradiction among newspapers was found while presenting data. This social change brings ultimately a linguistic change in the world. The English language is the language of overcoming gaps among nations, but this time it had correspondingly ushered in a new vocabulary to the general populace. For instance, new vocabulary, acronyms, synonyms, compounding, etc. Social change is parallel to linguistic change, and it is a paramount theme of lexicography. The local newspapers advocated a massive outbreak of the coronavirus and expected a second wave of this pandemic that was frustrating for the educational sector on top. The newspaper editors manipulate thoughts through forceful lexis usage to influence the thought, and opinions of Pakistani people.</em></p> Nayab Waqas Khan Mehak Muneer Huma Iqbal Copyright (c) 2021 Research Journal of Social Sciences and Economics Review (RJSSER) 2021-03-07 2021-03-07 2 1 144 153 10.36902/rjsser-vol2-iss1-2021(144-153) #MeToo as a Failed Movement of Women Empowerment in Pakistan: A Critical Discourse Analysis https://ojs.rjsser.org.pk/index.php/rjsser/article/view/235 <p><em>The current study aims to understand the narrative of #MeToo in Pakistan as formulated by Pakistani Twitter users. Although the #MeToo movement emerged as a movement of women empowerment against the issues of sexual harassment and domestic violence, however today in the 21<sup>st</sup>-century women are still struggling with longstanding abuses and sexual harassment. The current study has explored how in the patriarchal society of Pakistan, the narrative of #MeToo is not acceptable and manipulated by certain societal forces for personal gain. Similarly, this research has also understood the influence of dominant discourses on the narrative of #MeToo. Through the use of Van Dijk's (1998), Ideological square, as a theoretical lens, the results of the study argue that the narrative of #MeToo is badly exploited subjugated by patriarchal notions to manipulate women empowerment in Pakistan. Two domains of the #MeToo movement have been explored i.e. Sexual harassment and Domestic violence through the current study and the results have revealed that in the patriarchal society of Pakistan domestic violence is given weightage over sexual harassment. Furthermore, Patriarchy has argued that the #MeToo movement is a movement of fame, to which the proponents of the #MeToo movement referred as Fame: A Blame Game to the movement. Lastly, the recommendations are offered as well.</em></p> Khushbakht Dr. Sadia Irshad Dr. Abdus Samad Copyright (c) 2021 Research Journal of Social Sciences and Economics Review (RJSSER) 2021-03-07 2021-03-07 2 1 154 167 10.36902/rjsser-vol2-iss1-2021(154-167) Misanthropic Attitude of George Orwell’s Animal Farm: from Revolution to Rehabilitation https://ojs.rjsser.org.pk/index.php/rjsser/article/view/236 <p><em>This paper aims to focus on finding and highlighting the misanthropic aspects and their effects on the characters in the novel Animal Farm by George Orwell. The misanthropic perspectives in the novel have been premeditated deeply. Misanthropy has been implemented on the characters. The characters like, Old Major, Napoleon, Squealer, and others have been studied to manifest the misanthropic attitudes in it. Old major is the father of misanthropy in the novel Animal Farm and gives the idea of rehabilitation in the animals' lives and Napoleon accomplishes it. The disgusting behavior of the animals leads to revolution. Misanthropy affects humans' lives and they become homeless. The findings of the paper are that the animals possess disgusting behavior against humans. The paper concludes that the whole novel is replete with misanthropy and it is the very aspect that has been probed by this article. Eventually, misanthropy proves to be a nightmarish dream for animals of the Animal Farm and a complete disillusionment they expect from the revolution.</em></p> Sami Ullah Khan Dr. Abdus Samad Amar Yasir Copyright (c) 2021 Research Journal of Social Sciences and Economics Review (RJSSER) 2021-03-07 2021-03-07 2 1 168 173 10.36902/rjsser-vol2-iss1-2021(168-173) A Study of Quality Enhancement Initiatives Regarding Classroom Teaching: A Focus on Higher Education Institutions in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa https://ojs.rjsser.org.pk/index.php/rjsser/article/view/238 <p><em>This study was carried out to explore the implementation of quality enhancement initiatives at the university level in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. The main focus was on the aspect of quality teaching. The study covered the following research objectives: to examine teachers' training and preparation for enhancing the quality of classroom teaching; to find out facilities and resources provided for the enhancement of quality of classroom teaching; to analyze classroom practices taken by teachers for the enhancement of quality of classroom teaching.&nbsp; Data were collected from 68 heads of department and 258 faculty members of the related departments. The sample of the study consisted of two hundred fifty-eight (258) University teachers and sixty-eight (68) Heads of Department. Two research instruments were used for data collection one for faculty members and the other for heads of department. The data were analyzed using the mean score, percentage, and chi-square test. The findings of the study revealed that need-based training facilities for university teachers and smart classroom facilities are slightly imparted in the universities of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. The study also recommends that quality facilities, resources, and need-based training programs may equally be provided for quality teaching-learning processes in all the public sector universities of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa.</em></p> Abdul Waheed Prof. Dr. Muhammad Iqbal Majoka Dr. Shawana Fazal Copyright (c) 2021 Research Journal of Social Sciences and Economics Review (RJSSER) 2021-03-07 2021-03-07 2 1 174 181 10.36902/rjsser-vol2-iss1-2021(174-181) Living in the Third Space: A Postcolonial Study of Aslam’s Maps for Lost Lovers https://ojs.rjsser.org.pk/index.php/rjsser/article/view/237 <p><em>The Postcoloniality of Pakistani Literature in English is manifest in all the works produced both by the local and the diasporic writers representing the nation. Multifarious postcolonial dimensions of these literary yields, ranging from the personal exilic agonies to the collective traumas triggered by displacement, have been explored. Among these sociocultural dimensions represented in the creative works and theorized in the critical works, the notions of the Third Space and exilic consciousness remain the central ones. Invoking Homi Bhabha’s theoretical articulations on the issue, the researchers engage with Nadeem Aslam’s Maps for Lost Lovers for an understanding of the condition of the characters oscillating between the native and adopted cultures. This is a qualitative study and the method of textual analysis has been used. Through a thorough analysis of the text of the novel, the perplexing positionality of the characters living in the third space, as represented by Aslam, has been exposed and critiqued. To contribute to the understanding of the Pakistani diasporic community’s problem, the findings have been located in the broader cultural context.</em></p> Nasar Iqbal Abeera Shoukat Dr. Saleem Akhtar Khan Copyright (c) 2021 Research Journal of Social Sciences and Economics Review (RJSSER) 2021-03-07 2021-03-07 2 1 182 188 10.36902/rjsser-vol2-iss1-2021(182-188) The Role of Radio Clinic during COVID-19 Pandemic: A Case Study of Swat https://ojs.rjsser.org.pk/index.php/rjsser/article/view/194 <p><em>The current research study aimed to explore the role of radio clinics during the COVID-19 pandemic in Swat. The study was a content analysis based and radio programs were examined that how radio programs are playing role in creating awareness among the public about the coronavirus and what sort of information is disseminating to educate the people to save themselves from this hazardous disease. Data of one month from April 1, 2020, to April 30, 2020, was collected about radio programs about the public health of Radio Pakistan Swat. Furthermore, researchers made codding sheet to categorize the data. The findings of the study showed that almost all the programs emphasized keeping social distance, regular hand washing, wearing face masks, and stay home to secure themselves from being infected from coronavirus. The overall study concluded that community radio is playing a vital role in public awareness and education especially in rural and remote areas of Pakistan.</em></p> Sajjad Khan Dr. Ghulam Safdar Tufail Ahmad Copyright (c) 2021 Research Journal of Social Sciences and Economics Review (RJSSER) 2021-03-07 2021-03-07 2 1 189 194 10.36902/rjsser-vol2-iss1-2021(189-194) Water Politics between Pakistan and India: An Analysis https://ojs.rjsser.org.pk/index.php/rjsser/article/view/240 <p><em>Pakistan is blessed with rich natural resources in which water resources are the major ones. Yet the level of this important resource has been reached at an alarming level due to myriad factors such as misuse, mismanagement, and politics in water sectors at both levels national and international. The study is presenting an overview of the state of the Indus Water Treaty, Indus River Basin, and conflict between India and Pakistan in the wake of the Indus Water Treaty (IWT). The focus of the study is to reveal the hegemony of India on international waters and its relations with the outer world. Moreover, the research study has presented root causes of the water crisis, hydro politics in the South Asia region, the hegemony of India on international waters. Water management policies and co-operation mechanism is required between Pakistan and India to cope with the challenge of water shortage.</em></p> Muhammad Javed Israr Rasool Dr. Ghulam Mustafa Copyright (c) 2021 Research Journal of Social Sciences and Economics Review (RJSSER) 2021-03-07 2021-03-07 2 1 195 199 10.36902/rjsser-vol2-iss1-2021(195-199) Exploring Creation of Connected Classroom in Rural College: Students perspective on Challenges and Implications https://ojs.rjsser.org.pk/index.php/rjsser/article/view/234 <p><em>This study is based on an intervention of the connected classroom to seek out the teaching faculty shortage alternative. Two Government colleges, rural and urban colleges, coordinated for the intervention of the connected classroom through a software application ‘Skype.’ The urban college serves as the host institution. The urban college teacher delivers lectures to two classes simultaneously, through ‘Skype’ for rural students and face-to-face class interaction for urban colleges. The experiment was continued for four months to teach chemistry subjects. A focus group discussion was arranged for the class students after the successful completion of the connected classroom experiment. The data collected from the focus group discussion revealed that the participants enjoyed and appreciated learning through the experiment of the connected classroom, and they were satisfied at the end of the intervention. They expressed the learning through the connected classroom can be a useful alternative for the colleges facing the problems of shortage of teaching faculty. Students were happy that they got the opportunity of the connected classroom at the right time, and they completed their course well in time even when the teachers were not physically present there in the college. They consider the connected classroom is vital to reduce the distresses of poor village students.&nbsp; They say the permanent implementation of this strategy can assist and help rural students during the non-availability of teaching faculty.</em></p> Saadia Saleem Dr. Farhana Khursheed Copyright (c) 2021 Research Journal of Social Sciences and Economics Review (RJSSER) 2021-03-07 2021-03-07 2 1 200 207 10.36902/rjsser-vol2-iss1-2021(200-207) Identification of Boosters as Metadiscourse across Punjabi and Urdu Languages: A Machine Translation Approach https://ojs.rjsser.org.pk/index.php/rjsser/article/view/243 <p><em>Boosters are said to function appropriately as metadiscourse features across languages. This study, therefore, aimed to investigate the functions and appropriateness of the metadiscourse features across Punjabi and Urdu languages. For this purpose, a list of 79 boosters (as metadiscourse features) was considered that (boosters) were first transliterated across Punjabi and Urdu languages employing a machine translation process. Punjabi translation was carried through ‘Akhar’ (a software), and Punjabi corpus (a tool). Whereas Urdu translation was realized through online Urdu thesaurus, and ‘ijunoon’ (an online dictionary). Machine transliteration was followed by manual cleansing of Punjabi and Urdu translated wordlists that helped identify boosters in the corpora. Appropriateness of the identified boosters was then realized through expert opinion and Punjabi corpus (for the Punjabi language), and expert opinion, online Urdu thesaurus, and Urdu WordNet (for the Urdu language). This process further guided about how to; make wordlists, filter as well as verify translated words, and offer interactional and interactive metadiscourse categories across Punjabi and Urdu languages.</em></p> Ali Raza Siddique Muhammad Ahmad Dr. Muhammad Asim Mahmood Copyright (c) 2021 Research Journal of Social Sciences and Economics Review (RJSSER) 2021-03-07 2021-03-07 2 1 208 222 10.36902/rjsser-vol2-iss1-2021(208-222) Survivance and Remembrance: A Study of Trauma and Chronotope in the Book of Gold Leaves https://ojs.rjsser.org.pk/index.php/rjsser/article/view/244 <p><em>The book of Gold leaves by Mirza Waheed aims to present the interconnectedness of memory and trauma in making the survival of an individual </em>complicate<em>d. </em><em>Memory of any incident makes it traumatic when it returns with haunted effects. Remembrance of traumatic incidents makes survival complicated by creating a distressing situation for the devastated self by switching the timeless past into the present through Bakhtin's chronotopic images of time and place. Struggle to re-memorize the event through narration is like denying the traditional concept of indescribability of trauma and narration is equal to re-live that moment and be at that place again in the memory when places turned into traumatic sites and time ceased. Time becomes circular and these sites become a referent of that devastating time according to Caruth, it is the trauma of survival rather than the death that pinches most.&nbsp; Waheed's book of Gold leaves is a part of Kashmiri literature, explores the struggle to gain freedom and identity through collective losses. Intriguing situations of lockdown and bombings are enough to create hollow identities. Thus Words, being semantically analyzed, heighten the trauma of survival through the Spatio-temporal spectrum.</em></p> Kinza Sadique Dr. Muhammad Asif Copyright (c) 2021 Research Journal of Social Sciences and Economics Review (RJSSER) 2021-03-07 2021-03-07 2 1 223 231 10.36902/rjsser-vol2-iss1-2021(223-231) Proactive Employee Behaviors and Organizational Development: The Role of Self-Efficacy as a Moderator https://ojs.rjsser.org.pk/index.php/rjsser/article/view/245 <p><em>Organizational development is the key to success depending highly on the behaviors of individuals working within. This study has tested the impact of two types of proactive behaviors i.e., proactive problem solving (PPS) and proactive idea implementation (PII) on organizational development. The self-efficacy of employees is taken as a moderator on the direct relationship of PPS and PII with organizational development (OD). Data is collected from managerial employees of manufacturing organizations in Rawalpindi, Islamabad, and KPK region in Pakistan, through self-administered survey questionnaires. Results show that PPS and PII have a positive significant relationship with organizational development. Self-efficacy strongly moderates the direct relationships of PPS and PII with OD in such a way that the higher the levels of self-efficacy, the stronger will be the relationship of PII and PPS with OD. This research provides useful insights into the organizational development literature highlighting the importance of proactivity and self-efficacy resources of employees.</em></p> Saima Aftab Dr. Ajmal Waheed Copyright (c) 2021 Research Journal of Social Sciences and Economics Review (RJSSER) 2021-03-07 2021-03-07 2 1 232 243 10.36902/rjsser-vol2-iss1-2021(232-243) Buner Marble Industry within Environmental Legal Perspective https://ojs.rjsser.org.pk/index.php/rjsser/article/view/247 <p><em>This study focuses on environmental issues caused by the marble industry in district Buner. District Buner is home to 247 marble factories, which operate in blatant violation of environmental protection laws. The factories and other projects are required to comply with certain provisions of the Pakistan Environmental Protection Act (PEPA), 1997 and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Environmental Protection Act (KPEPA), 2014, respectively. By contrast, the marble industry in district Buner follows none of these laws which have led to serious environmental pollution, most characteristically water, air, and noise pollution. This paper exclusively discusses those provisions of KPEPA, 2014 which are being violated by these marble factories that have led to drastic environmental crisis in the area.</em></p> Dr. Ilyas Khan Gohar Ali Dr. Syed Raza Shah Gilani Copyright (c) 2021 Research Journal of Social Sciences and Economics Review (RJSSER) 2021-03-07 2021-03-07 2 1 244 250 10.36902/rjsser-vol2-iss1-2021(244-250) The Historical Origins of the Proportionality Doctrine as a tool of Judicial Review: A Critical Analysis https://ojs.rjsser.org.pk/index.php/rjsser/article/view/248 <p><em>It is a fact that the doctrine of Militant Democracy is essential to protect society from the threat of terrorism. On the other hand, we should not ignore the element of its interpretive nature, which means that there is an apprehension that the states having a poor human rights record may use it to achieve their ulterior motives while damaging the fundamental rights of the individual. In Europe, the ECtHR and domestic courts at the national level are duty-bound to save these fundamental rights. Hence, the doctrine of proportionality is an essential tool to check the militant democracy measures on the fundamental freedoms and human rights. To understand the authenticity of the doctrine of proportionality, it is essential to establish its origin and stages of evolution, because this will enable me to explore the use of this doctrine, which is adopted by many nations, before analyzing its use in the UK’s legal system.</em></p> Dr. Syed Raza Shah Gilani Dr. Ilyas Khan Shehla Zahoor Copyright (c) 2021 Research Journal of Social Sciences and Economics Review (RJSSER) 2021-03-07 2021-03-07 2 1 251 258 10.36902/rjsser-vol2-iss1-2021(251-258) The strategic relations of Pakistan and Russia in 21st Century https://ojs.rjsser.org.pk/index.php/rjsser/article/view/252 <p><em>A systematic investigation of the steps that Russia has taken after 9/11 to improve strategic relations with Pakistan gives an idea of ​​why it is moving so carefully towards Pakistan. Now it has become important to see what kind of steps Russia has taken to further enhance strategic relations with Pakistan. In June, 2014 the Russian leadership began negotiations to provide Pakistan with state-of-the-art war helicopters to combat drug traffickers (Ullah, 2014, p.1). This development has taken as a surprise in the international community and certainly is not one that can be easily overlooked. The United States and Europe are looking disturbed and some experts have made suppositions that Russia is maneuvering the withdrawal of NATO forces by increasing instability in Afghanistan to increase its role in the aftermath of the withdrawal of NATO forces. In the new situation, Pakistan will have to be strengthened at the front of foreign policy so that it can better cope with the state of affairs that can emerge after the withdrawal of NATO forces. Some experts believe that Russia no longer wanted to make things one-sided and want to increase the role of other stakeholders of the region in the solution of Afghanistan. In the past Russia has paid extraordinary attention to India and ignored Pakistan. These experts believe that Russia now wanted to create a balance of power in the region through cooperation with Pakistan and is trying not to give too much to any one country in the world. Talks between Pakistani Prime Minister Imran Khan and Russian President Putin during the SCO summit in June 2019 were highlighted in the national media of Pakistan and Russia as well as in the international media (Pakistan eyes new horizons with Russia, 2019).&nbsp; The history and nature of Pakistan-Russia relations have been very unique and interesting. Pakistan and Russia relations teach the lesson that elements like sentimentality, friendship, and enmity have no place in international relations. In the modern state system, these are the national interests, based on which the two states can come closer to each other and work together to achieve their goals by putting their difference of past behind the scene.</em></p> Dr. Imran Khan Dr. Karim Haider Syed Copyright (c) 2021 Research Journal of Social Sciences and Economics Review (RJSSER) 2021-03-07 2021-03-07 2 1 259 265 10.36902/rjsser-vol2-iss1-2021(259-265) Analyzing the Role of Organizational Climate on Courageous Followership and Authentic Leadership among University Graduates in Pakistan https://ojs.rjsser.org.pk/index.php/rjsser/article/view/253 <p><em>In today’s world, understanding the concept of followers is as important as the concept of leaders in the organization. Building the concept of followership and leadership, this study used the reversing the lens approach in leadership study and hypothesized that the relationship between courageous followership and authentic leadership enhances in the presence of organizational climate as moderator. The target sample for this study was graduate students from different universities in twin cities of Pakistan i.e. Rawalpindi and Islamabad (N= 171). This sample was chosen by convenience-based sampling due to Covid-19. The data were analyzed by using the SPSS and moderation analysis was also applied to this study. The results supported the hypotheses of the study by concluding that the organizational climate act as a moderator and influences the relationship between courageous followership and authentic leadership. Focusing on developing a good organizational climate will boost the impact of courageous followership behavior and authentic leadership in the students, and this would create a balanced and progressive society. Future researchers might need to consider the courageous followership behavior development and its role in enhancing authentic leadership in different work settings.</em></p> Rimsha Zafar Wajeeha Ghias Dr. Muhammadi Sabra Nadeem Copyright (c) 2021 Research Journal of Social Sciences and Economics Review (RJSSER) 2021-03-07 2021-03-07 2 1 266 274 10.36902/rjsser-vol2-iss1-2021(266-274) The Effect of Integrative Pedagogy on Academic Achievements of Chemistry Students https://ojs.rjsser.org.pk/index.php/rjsser/article/view/94 <p><em>The study in hand aimed to determine the effects of integrative pedagogy over the academic performance of secondary school students in the subject of Chemistry. The study was conducted in an experimental framework following the Solomon Four Group Design. A total sample of 120 students of 10<sup>th</sup> class was randomly taken from 4 private sector Secondary Schools of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. The sample was divided into 4 groups, each having 30 students. Giving a randomized treatment to the groups, two groups were taken as experimental while two were taken as controlled. One experimental and one controlled group were pre-tested for Chemistry subject performance through objective achievement tests, while others were not pre-tested. Both experimental groups were taught through integrative pedagogy while the controlled groups were taught through the traditional method for three months. After regular monthly post-testing, the triplicate data revealed an 11-point average increase in the academic performance of chemistry students in both the experimental groups in comparison to the controlled groups.</em></p> Dr. Khisro Kaleem Raza Dr. Niaz Muhammad Aajiz Dr. Alam Zeb Copyright (c) 2021 Research Journal of Social Sciences and Economics Review (RJSSER) 2021-03-07 2021-03-07 2 1 275 279 10.36902/rjsser-vol2-iss1-2021(275-279)