Research Journal of Social Sciences and Economics Review <p><iframe src="" width="100%" height="4550"> </iframe></p> en-US (Muhammad Idris) (Hazrat Bilal) Mon, 06 Feb 2023 05:24:48 +0000 OJS 60 Quranic and Modern Concept of Leadership Skill <p><em>The paper attempts to throw light on the concept of leadership skill as perceived from the Modern writers and researchers and Quranic point of view about leadership. It conceptualizes leadership from two different perspectives; as understood by the modern writers, researchers (which have been researched, deliberated and documented quite extensively), and point of view mainly extracted from the Quran. Leadership skill is considered as a twenty first century skill by many researchers. Its importance is important and essential for human beings. Leadership skills are the potencies and capabilities displayed by in assisting and managing procedures, directing plans and guiding employees towards the achievement of goals and aims.&nbsp; There have been different theories and models presented by Western writers and researchers on leadership skill. Quran presents clear notion of leadership. Quran elaborates that all prophets were sent as leaders for humanity.</em></p> Dr. Hukamdad, Dr. Rafaqat Ali Akbar Copyright (c) 2023 Research Journal of Social Sciences and Economics Review Thu, 02 Feb 2023 15:43:28 +0000 Islamophobia and the Issue of Jammu & Kashmir: A Corpus-based Transitivity Analysis of Imran Khan’s Speech at UNGA <p><em>Systemic Functional Linguistics deals with different patterns of grammar along with the analysis of sentences. This study aimed to explore the transitivity system in Prime Minister Imran Khan’s Speech at United Nations General Assembly (UGNA). This research was primarily focused on how Prime Minister Imran Khan presented the issue of Islamophobia and Jammu and Kashmir. This study followed a quantitative research methodology. For this purpose, the transcription of PM khan's speech at UGNA was taken as the research method. Moreover, to explore the transitivity system in the speech of PM Khan UAM corpus-based tool was used. The analysis of the transitivity process was done at the clause level. The ideational meta function of Halliday’s Systemic Functional Linguistics was used as the theoretical framework for this political discourse. The types of processes, participants, and circumstances are manipulated at a deep level. Results showed that PM Khan mostly used material type of transitivity in his speech at UGNO. A description of all the results is presented in the form of tables and charts for depth assessment and understanding.</em></p> Rai Hassan Iqbal, Muhammad Shaharyar Sabiri, Rahat Batool Copyright (c) 2023 Research Journal of Social Sciences and Economics Review Thu, 02 Feb 2023 15:59:02 +0000 Financial Systems, Crisis, and Performance of Non-Financial Firms <p><em>This study examined the effect of financial crisis on performance of firms selected from divergent financial systems. For empirical analysis, a sample of 1440 non-financial firms was selected from 32 countries. Secondary data of firm level variables were collected from different reliable published sources. Panel regression model was applied for analysis of data and effect of crisis was examined by adding a dummy variable in the regression model. Relative effect of crisis across different categories was probed with the help of appropriate interaction terms. The study didn’t find any significant effect of crisis on financial performance of selected firms. Similarly, the differential effect across different categories also remain insignificant. On the basis of results, the study concluded that financial system structure is not much relevant in integrated modern global economies. The study recommended to strengthen the financial systems and develop an integration of all of its components for better and vibrant outcomes. The study further recommended to improve the internal systems and overall infrastructure for achieving sustainable growth and coping with the shocks effectively.&nbsp; </em></p> Dr. Ghulam Mujtaba Chaudhary, Dr. Sabahat Akram, Adeel Arshad Copyright (c) 2023 Research Journal of Social Sciences and Economics Review Thu, 02 Feb 2023 16:16:34 +0000 A Critical Discourse Analysis of Dietary Recommendations of Medical Associations and Research Articles on Hypertension Disease <p><em>"Critical discourse analysis (CDA) is a type of discourse analytical research that primarily studies the way social power abuse, dominance, and inequality are enacted, reproduced, and resisted by text and talk in the social and political context" (Van Dijk p. 353). This study aims to investigate the language use between medical associations and research articles through Van Dijk’s Semantic Macrostructure model of Critical Discourse Analysis. This study is qualitative in nature. The data was collected from ten medical research articles on high blood pressure disease from PubMed and Science Direct. These articles were purposefully selected from 2010 to 2020. Similarly, the association’s dietary recommendations are selected for the comparison. These selected associations are the World Health Organization, the Mayo Clinic, the American Health Organization, and the American Health Associations. Van Dijk’s macrostructure rules have been applied only with the dietary recommendations suggested by associations and articles. The data has been analyzed using the categories defined by Van Dijk, i.e. Generalization, Deletion, Selection and Construction through AntConc (Version 4.0.10).</em> <em>The findings of the study revealed that medical associations usually omit the details of their discourse. Generalization and deletion have been highly observed in medical associations. As far as research articles are concerned, they have built macro-propositions by providing adequate details about each and every recommendation. They focused on the aspect that every piece of information is important and nothing is irrelevant. It has been observed that, associations present the abstracting details to propagate certain ideologies and hidden agendas and divert public attention toward particular brands and products. Furthermore, the producers of medical discourse attempted to impose a large influence of their underlying beliefs and objectives on public minds</em>. <em>As a result, with the support of capitalism, the medical discourse of associations has been badly influenced.</em></p> Zunaira Tariq, Ata ul Ghafar, Shepherd Masood Akhtar Copyright (c) 2023 Research Journal of Social Sciences and Economics Review Thu, 02 Feb 2023 16:30:37 +0000 A Study of Leadership Styles of Administrators and its Perceived Impact on Morale of Elementary School Educators in Pakistan <p><em>This research investigated the influence of democratic leadership practices of elementary school administrators on the morale of educators. It was also an attempt to explore how democratic leadership style of administrators, develop high morale among elementary school educators in Pakistan. For the purpose, 22 administrators and 20 school educators in federal government educational institutes contributed to the study. Mixed methods research design was used to collect quantitative and qualitative data that helped to answer the research questions. The Leadership styles questionnaire developed by Northouse (2009) was used to collect quantitative information regarding democratic, authoritarian, and laissez-fare leadership styles of the administrators. The interview guide developed by Littleford (2007) was used to collect qualitative information of educators’ morale. It helped to collect detailed information regarding the research variables. The educator’s personal experiences were considered in one–on-one interview, The results indicated that out of 22 schools 16 were practicing democratic leadership style, 1 school was practicing authoritarian leadership style, 4 were practicing both democratic and authoritarian leadership style and 1 school administrator was practicing laissez-fare leadership style. Themes induced from the qualitative data, using thematic analysis approach of the educators’ interview indicated that administrators’ leadership styles influenced moral of the educators. These findings showed that elementary educators' morale was high due to democratic leadership style of the school administrators.</em></p> Fatima Saddique, Dr. Bushra Inayat Raja Copyright (c) 2023 Research Journal of Social Sciences and Economics Review Thu, 02 Feb 2023 16:50:27 +0000 Assessing the Effectiveness of Students Evaluation of Teachers: A Qualitative Analysis of Pakistan’s Higher Education <p><em>This study assesses the effectiveness of Students Evaluations of Teachers (SET) in the context of Pakistan’s higher education. It explores various factors and drawbacks that exist in SETs’ administration. The study aimed to investigate the relationship between grade inflation and SET ratings. Teachers and faculty's perceptions of SETs and lower response rate from students towards SET was also investigated. It was also attempted to unearth the effectiveness of SETs in the online mode of administration. A qualitative research methodology has been adopted to carry out the study. Data for the study was attained from 24 respondents which include university teachers, administrators, and students of two public sector universities. Purposive sampling technique was used to choose respondents for data collection. An interview guide was used to collect data from the respondents. Collected data was coded and clubbed together to develop meaningful themes. This study's findings affirmed that SET's validity is partly influenced by the physical attractiveness of the teachers. The findings further suggest that administrators are more confident than the faculty concerning SETs' validity and its usage in administrative decisions about teacher appraisals. The relationship between grade inflation and SETs was found genuine, however, the interplay of two other determinants was also found significant. First, the teachers do not buy good ratings from students intentionally. Second, visiting faculty is more vulnerable to inflating grades than regular faculty. Contrary to the findings of early studies on online or electronic evaluations, it was found that online evaluations have not decreased the response rate of students. However, the effectiveness of SETs in online mode can be realized if the anonymity of the respondents is preserved. We propose that students should be offered open access to the evaluations portal.</em></p> Abdul Wahid Qureshi, Luqman Hakeem, Fawad Ullah Copyright (c) 2023 Research Journal of Social Sciences and Economics Review Sat, 04 Feb 2023 07:13:53 +0000 Relationship between HRM Practices, Perceived Organizational Support, Employee Attitudes and Behaviour and Discretionary Behaviour <p><em>HRM practices are widely used in many organizations including public sector or private sector. The primarily aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between HRM practices, perceived organizational support, employee attitudes and behaviour and discretionary behaviour. This study was explanatory, predictive and quantitative in nature based on deductive approach and positivist philosophy. Population &amp; sample: Officers bearing grade 17 and above and employees bearing grade 16 and below were targeted for data collection. Sampling: Data acquired through convenience sampling (An item of non-probability sampling). Data and source of collection: Primary data acquired through close-ended questionnaire based on seven related choices indicating level of agreement or disagreement. Data analysis &amp; interpretation: Data analysis &amp; interpretation performed through Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) and Partial Least Square- Structural Equation Modelling (PLS-SEM). Conclusion: HRM practices tested positive and significant with perceived organizational support, employee attitudes and behaviour and discretionary behaviour. Future research directions: This research should be undertaken in private sector to further explore and understand the findings of current study in comparison to that study. One or two novel variables should in incorporated in the existing model to enlarge the scope of future research.</em></p> Tauqeer Hussain Hakro, Amjad Hussain Lashari, Shankar Lal Copyright (c) 2023 Research Journal of Social Sciences and Economics Review Sat, 04 Feb 2023 07:29:00 +0000 Investigating the Diversified Experiences, Opportunities and Challenges of the Foreign Qualified Faculty after joining back in Public Sector Universities <p><em>In recent times, the globe has provided countless options for human-created solutions to problems. Developing countries, including Pakistan, have begun to draw on shared national experiences to chart a course forward, notably in the field of education. A broad figure of lecturers of Pakistani educational institution go abroad to improve their knowledge, following in the footsteps of many other emerging countries and get expertise in a multi-cultural context in order to effectively transform their present practices. Many lecturers in Pakistan have obtained degrees from other countries, and this study will look into their experiences and the issues they face when they return home. Semi-structured interviews with foreign qualified academics were conducted to learn about their experiences while abroad and the opportunities/challenges they experienced upon their return. The major findings of the data analysis revealed that faculty experiences in foreign universities were joyful and beneficial in terms of professional growth and general exposure. During their studies, faculty members enjoyed studying through a range of academic activities such as interactive workshops, seminars, and learning programs. The findings, however, suggested that the foreign qualified professors met difficult hurdles upon their return to Pakistan. When people returned to work in their local surroundings, they faced several obstacles such as reverse culture shock and others. It was also seen they accepted challenges to develop their careers by utilizing their overseas experiences to influence positive change and progress in their practices for the benefit of their students. Several recommendations were made in light of the current investigation.</em></p> Dr. Nasrin Akhtar Copyright (c) 2023 Research Journal of Social Sciences and Economics Review Thu, 09 Feb 2023 17:19:06 +0000 Gender Differences in Primary School Teachers’ Perceptions of Self-Directed Professional Learning <p><em>In order to better understand how Primary School Teachers’ perceive self-directed professional learning, a study was conducted to compare teachers' perceptions by gender. A self-created data collection tool, a questionnaire, was utilized. According to the study's findings, no significant difference exists between male and female perceptions of self-capability of identifying learning goals, effectiveness of learning from colleagues, awareness regarding available learning resources, knowledge about current challenges in education, and observing teaching methodologies of colleagues. It was also found that male and female PSTs know how to create a plan for their weak areas of teaching. They are capable of selecting the best method for their own learning and take responsibility for their own learning as well. According to the findings of the study, both male and female PSTs preferred peer coaching. They also observe and learn from their colleagues' experiences. Despite of the workload, a significant number of male and female PSTs engage themselves in self-directed learning. It is concluded that if PSTs have a choice in deciding learning type, they will choose self-directed learning over required professional learning sessions.</em></p> Sumaira Anjum, Dr. Umar Farooq, Dr. Gulnaz Akbar Copyright (c) 2023 Research Journal of Social Sciences and Economics Review Wed, 22 Feb 2023 05:49:36 +0000 Perceptions and Experiences about Covid-19-induced Online Education: A Study about Primary School Students in Pakistan <p><em>This study explores the perceptions of the elite class, private sector primary school students in Pakistan about online education during Covid-19, its benefits and challenges, and the quality of education during the pandemic. It further explores if the students want online education to continue after Covid-19 or not. Semi-structured interviews were used to collect data from eight students. The students mostly used Google Classroom and Google Meet. Internet connectivity, electricity, the difficulty in operating different software and platforms, and the lack of socialization were mentioned as some of the biggest challenges during online education; while the opportunity to learn different software and platforms, flexibility, and staying at home were mentioned as some of its benefits. The students had mixed opinions about online classes and the quality of education during Covid-19. As compared to other studies about school students in Pakistan, these students felt more comfortable with online education; however, they did not want purely online education to continue after Covid-19. Despite multiple challenges, online education brings numerous benefits. The study suggests that to overcome infrastructural and internet-related issues, the blended mode should be adopted as it can maximize the benefits of the two modes, and overcome some of their challenges.</em></p> Muhammad Abid Malik Copyright (c) 2023 Research Journal of Social Sciences and Economics Review Tue, 28 Feb 2023 09:47:46 +0000 Defining of Terrorism in Pakistan’s Anti-Terrorism Law <p><em>Many disciplines, of social science have researched on terrorism. The criminal justice reaction on terrorism plays important role to countering terrorism. The rule of law and human rights has grabbed attention on the 1997 Act of Anti-Terrorism, terrorism definition because it has controversial issue since 20<sup>th</sup> century. In Pakistan current definition of anti-terrorism law is against human rights standard. It is concluded like other countries practice on human rights and principle of legality examined in Pakistan. It is recommended that Pakistan also follow UN guidelines 2006, and bring amendment in definition clause of anti-terrorism law.</em></p> Naila Rafique, Sajida Faraz, Irum Jabeen Copyright (c) 2023 Research Journal of Social Sciences and Economics Review Tue, 28 Feb 2023 10:10:24 +0000 Investigating Vocabulary Learning Strategies of ESL Undergraduate Learners in Karachi Pakistan <p><em>This research aimed to better understand how vocabulary is taught and learned in a variety of Pakistani classrooms. The primary purpose of this research was to employ VLS to evaluate the linguistic competence of undergraduate ESL students. The intended readers were undergraduates studying English as a Second Language or English as a Foreign Language at universities in Karachi, Pakistan. This study set out to debunk the idea that university ESL students lack lexical knowledge and reflectiveness despite having studied English for over ten years. Furthermore examined was the impact of VLS on the university experience of ESL graduates. The study also looked at how much knowledge undergraduate ESL students had of vocabulary acquisition strategies, how they felt about those strategies, and what effect those feelings had on their learning outcomes. With this in mind, the research took place in Karachi, a big city where the vast majority of students were urbanites whose first language was Urdu. The sample population was comprised of management personnel from four separate private organizations (English Non-major). The survey tool included the Vocabulary Teaching Strategy and the Vocabulary Learning Strategy, both of which focus on phonemic awareness. The survey included questions about techniques for increasing phonologically-aware vocabulary. However, the questions provided in VLSQ were prepared with the target demographic in mind. It was also taken into account that the target demographic was culturally and linguistically varied, with English serving as the common language of instruction. The researchers, with a focus on cultural diversity and the necessity of a method for learning the vocabulary of one's target second language, formulated the statements that make up the Vocabulary Learning Strategy, which include a focus on phonological awareness. SPSS, version 22, was used for the statistical analysis, and the study's findings were presented as means and percentages. The main results showed and indicated that the subjects did not have phonological awareness. Furthermore, the study suggested additional research into vocabulary acquisition methodologies in various educational contexts in Pakistan.</em></p> Dr. Muhammad Akram Mankash, Zahra Khan, Dr. Zahid Ali Copyright (c) 2023 Research Journal of Social Sciences and Economics Review Wed, 01 Mar 2023 13:58:21 +0000 Exploring the Association between University Students’ Study Skills and Academic Achievement <p><em>This study conducted to explore the association among university students’ study skills and academic achievement. The descriptive correlational survey research design was used in the study. All the male and female students enrolled in BS program were the population of this study. The sample selected was 2207 students studying in general public universities of Punjab Pakistan through stratified random sampling technique. With the permission of author, the study skill assessment questionnaire was modified, validated and put through a reliability coefficient .094. Two research hypotheses were formulated and tested through Mean, Standard deviation, ANOVA and Pearson r. The result showed a considerable positive association between study skills and academic achievement of university students. According to the finding of this study, it is recommended that at the time of entrance universities should offer especial training to students so that they can learn or improve their study skills and improve their academic achievement.</em></p> Hina Zahra, Dr. Mushtaq Ahmed Malik, Dr. Ahmad Bilal Cheema Copyright (c) 2023 Research Journal of Social Sciences and Economics Review Thu, 02 Mar 2023 10:12:18 +0000 Impact of Students’ Ubiquitous Learning through Web 2.0 Tool on Students’ 21st Century Skills: Creativity and Communication <p><em>Ubiquitous learning is transforming education by enabling human-focused learning through seamless access to resources from anywhere. In addition, these tools enhance context understanding and make it easy to interact between real and digital learning resources, all while offering individualized learning opportunities. This research surveyed public sector university teachers in Sindh and Punjab provinces of Pakistan to gather their opinions on the How web 2.0 tools and ubiquitous learning are affecting the development of 21st century learning skills in students. The research aimed to assess the impact of Web 2.0 tools for ubiquitous learning (UL) on the creativity and communication skills of graduate-level students. To collect data, the study administered a self-developed questionnaire with 50 items rated on a 7-point Likert-type scale to 500 university teachers. This constituted the primary data for the research. According to the findings, ubiquitous learning has a noteworthy effect on fostering creativity and communication skills in university students. To make ubiquitous learning successful, both private and public sector universities must have adequate ICT infrastructure and provide teacher training that focuses on ICT-based teaching methods. The study can assist university teachers in establishing a ubiquitous learning (UL) environment that employs web 2.0 tools, thereby enabling students to effectively enhance their 21st-century learning skills, including creativity and communication.</em></p> Dr. Safia Urooj, Prof. Dr. Muhammad Shahid Farooq Copyright (c) 2023 Research Journal of Social Sciences and Economics Review Mon, 13 Mar 2023 04:28:56 +0000 Differences in Principals’ Instructional Supervisory Practices in Private Secondary Schools of Lahore based on Selected Demographic Variables <p><em>Pakistan Economic Survey Reports (2018-2019; 2019-2020; 2020-2021) have continuously indicated better academic performance of private school students as compared to their counterparts in public schools. One contributing factor to the success of the private schools is their approach to quality instructions and instructional monitoring (Amin, Amin, &amp; Rashid, 2022; Nasreen &amp; Shah, 2019). This quantitative study is intended to find out the differences in teachers’ perceptions regarding their principals’ instructional supervisory practices in private secondary schools of Lahore based on certain demographic variables such as gender, age, academic qualification, and professional experience. The study uses survey method in which a questionnaire entitled Instructional Supervisory Practices Scale (ISPS) was administered to 530 teachers in around 24 private secondary schools of Lahore. The level of participants’ perception regarding their principals’ instructional supervisory practices in their respective schools was determined by using frequencies, percentages, mean, and standard deviation. To analyze the differences in teachers’ perceptions regarding principals’ instructional supervisory practices in their respective schools, independent sample t-test and One-way ANOVA were applied. Furthermore, post hoc tests were executed to determine where the differences occurred between groups. The results of the present study highlighted that the differences exist in the teachers’ perceptions regarding their principal’s instructional supervisory practices with reference to their gender and professional experience while no significant differences were observed when compared by their age and academic qualification groups. The instructional supervisors were perceived using effective leadership skills quite frequently in private secondary schools.</em></p> Shahida Nasreen, Dr. Madiha Shah, Maimoona Naeem Copyright (c) 2023 Research Journal of Social Sciences and Economics Review Wed, 15 Mar 2023 05:54:23 +0000 Relationship between Transformational Leadership and Employee Performance: A study of University of Sindh <p><strong><em>Brief Overview:</em></strong><em> This study assessed the relationship between Transformational Leadership (TL) and Employee Performance (EP) among permanent and non-permanent faculty members of University of Sindh. Quantitative techniques were used based on deductive approach with positivist Philosophy. Primary data obtained by close-ended questionnaire based on five related choices describing level of agreement or disagreement. A sum of 523 questionnaires delivered to target population using simple random sampling technique, out of that 507 considered fit for making analysis and interpretation. Data analysed and interpreted by SPSS and PLS-SEM. SPSS was used for measuring response rate of the survey, demographic profile of respondents and Cronbach’s alpha (CBA). Since, PLS-SEM was used for model measurement and verification. All relationships found positive and significant based on data analysis and interpretation. However, the purview of current research was very narrow and it could be expanded to other universities of Sindh as well.</em></p> Dil Nawaz Hakro, Tauqeer Hussain Hakro, Ghulam Murtaza Solangi Copyright (c) 2023 Research Journal of Social Sciences and Economics Review Thu, 16 Mar 2023 16:04:52 +0000 Online Self-Regulated Learning and University Students’ Actual Grade Achievement: The Mediating Effect of Grit During Online Classes <p><em>Online learning requires self-responsibility, self-regulation, autonomy, determination and passion among students for their academic achievement. Prime objective of present research was to explore the mediating effect of grit in relationship between online self-regulated learning and university students’ actual grade achievement during online classes. Quantitative research paradigm with deductive method was employed in view of the nature of present research. A total of 238 university students, who attended online classes, participated in this study. Correlation, regression, simple mediation and parallel mediation statistical analyses were conducted to analyze the data. The results revealed significant positive relationship between online self-regulated learning, grit and actual grade achievement of university students. Furthermore, grit and its facets i.e. consistency of interest and perseverance of effort fully mediates the relationship of online self-regulated learning and actual grade achievement of university students. Perseverance of effort showed more predictive power for students’ actual grade achievement than consistency of interest. Therefore, it is recommended that university faculty and administrators may focus on role of grit and self-regulated learning during online classes which in-turn will positively contribute towards academic success.</em></p> Dr. Samra Afzal, Dr. Shazia Zamir, Dr. Nayyer Sultana Copyright (c) 2023 Research Journal of Social Sciences and Economics Review Wed, 22 Mar 2023 04:08:16 +0000 Relationship between Social - Emotional Competence and Students Academic Achievement <p><em>The study determined the relationship between social-emotional competence (SEC) and students’ academic achievement at secondary level. Total sample was comprised on 382 students from three districts of Province of Punjab, Pakistan. Two research instruments were used namely, students’ final result and Scale for determining SEC among students. Data was analyzed by using correlation coefficient, mean and percentage. Results indicated positive relationship between SEC and students’ achievement. Correlation of factors (self-consciousness, social-consciousness, self-regulation, relationship building and decisiveness) of SEC and achievement was also found to be positively correlated. It was concluded that SEC positively affect achievement of the students at secondary level.</em></p> Dr. Sumera Kulsoom, Ifra Akram, Syeda Maria Zainab Gardezi Copyright (c) 2023 Research Journal of Social Sciences and Economics Review Mon, 27 Mar 2023 04:20:22 +0000 Exploring Leadership Practices in the Lens of School Leaders at Primary Level <p><em>Leadership is a critical aspect of any organization, and educational institutions are no exception. School leaders play a vital role in shaping the vision and direction of a school, creating a positive school culture, and providing effective leadership to teachers and staff. Effective school leadership has been linked to improved student achievement, teacher satisfaction, and a positive school climate. However, leadership in the context of educational institutions is complex and multifaceted, and there is still much to be understood about the role of school leaders and their impact on school success. This research paper aims to explore the concept of leadership in the context of school leaders, including their roles, qualities, and challenges. This study used a qualitative research methodology, interviews were conducted with a total of four school leaders (head teachers) from different schools in the same town. Data was analyzed through systematically (organizing, transcribing, coding, categorizing) and using thematic analysis. The results of this study show that effective school leaders possess a combination of skills, qualities, and knowledge that enable them to manage the complexities of the education system, build relationships, and inspire others. This investigation yielded five school leadership practices: development of school plans, handling teammate suggestions, presence adds value, criticism handling, and task delegation. It is recommended that the administration and all stakeholders recognize the importance of motivating school leadership/headmasters/headmistresses and providing them with a smooth environment and the necessary resources to implement innovative approaches in their&nbsp;schools that improve quality teaching/learning. Furthermore, additional mixed method research on this issue is proposed in order to reach in-depth insights and aspirations.</em></p> Nargis Yaqoob, Dr. Zahid Ali, Dr. Noor Ullah Copyright (c) 2023 Research Journal of Social Sciences and Economics Review Wed, 29 Mar 2023 15:00:06 +0000 Non Est Factum: A Critical Analysis of the Doctrine's Evolution and Contemporary Application in Contract Law <p><em>This research article provides a critical analysis of the doctrine of "non est factum" in contract law, exploring its historical evolution and contemporary application. The doctrine, which allows a party to challenge the validity of a contract on the basis that it was signed under a mistaken belief as to its nature or character, is examined in light of its similarities and differences with other defenses in contract law, such as mistake and misrepresentation. The article also discusses the challenges and limitations associated with the use of the defense, including the need to demonstrate fundamental differences between the signed document and what the party believed it to be. Through a detailed analysis of case law and legal scholarship, the article offers insights into the doctrine's use and application in modern contract law, providing a valuable resource for legal practitioners and scholars alike.</em></p> Abdus Samad Khan, Kalsoom Kishwar, Sobia Bashir Copyright (c) 2023 Research Journal of Social Sciences and Economics Review Thu, 30 Mar 2023 07:10:26 +0000 Health-Related Quality of Life and Distress among Insulin-Dependent Diabetics <p><em>Diabetes and depressive symptoms are devastating conditions that have an adverse impact on the health and quality of life among insulin-dependent patients.&nbsp; The present study envisioned exploring the correlation between diabetic distress and health-associated quality of life among insulin-dependent diabetic patients. A sample of 280 diabetic patients (178 males and 102 females) along with an age range from 20 to 55 years was purposefully selected from Government and private clinics of the Hazara Division. Urdu versions of SF-36 of the quality-of-life scale, The diabetic distress scale (Polonsky et al., 2005), and the Insulin dependency checklist (IDCL; Parveen, 2012) were used to assess the health-related quality of life, diabetic distress, and insulin dependency respectively. Pearson Product moment correlation revealed a negative relationship between diabetic distress and health-related quality of life while having a positive correlation with insulin dependency. Independent sample t-test revealed a significant difference in the health-related quality of life, and diabetic distress and suggested that female diabetic patients with insulin dependency were experiencing more depression and poor quality of life than male patients.</em></p> Shagufta Perveen, Gul Jabeen, Hafsa Khan Copyright (c) 2023 Research Journal of Social Sciences and Economics Review Fri, 31 Mar 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Pragmatic Measures Proposed Regarding Normalization of Diverse Learners: Portrayal of Special Educators <p><em>The study was conducted to explore the Pragmatic Measures Suggested by Special Education Teachers Regarding Normalization of Diverse Learners. A total of normalization that is an effort to end the ``required, capricious and inhuman segregation of pragmatic learner and enable them to involve in normal, social and familial contacts. This study will help the special education teachers to resolve many psychological problems like inferiority complex and social discrimination. It will be help full for the special education teacher to enable pragmatic to children to engage in normal, social and familial contacts. It will be helpful for the regular school teacher to treat the pragmatic child with love and respect. The study will bring awareness in society regarding normalization of pragmatic learners. It will be helpful for the parents of special children to treat them like normal children. Data was collected physically as well as online by utilizing google forms. After collecting data, SPSS 21 was used to run the different tests as the study requirement, and results were tabulated. Studies have indicated that exposing pragmatic measures that resolve many psychological problems like inferiority complex and social discrimination. It helped to diverse learners to increase their functional skills, take advantage of their strengths, and compensate for their weaknesses. It is highly recommended that the mentoring programs need to launch to help people feel more empowered and more connected to their neighborhoods. Schools and students work together to develop and refine prevention and intervention strategies. The staff builds rapport with families via personal interactions with parents.</em></p> Sumaira Naureen, Dr. Erum Aslam Khan, Dr. Muhammad Javed Aftab Copyright (c) 2023 Research Journal of Social Sciences and Economics Review Fri, 31 Mar 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Investigate the Role of the Socio-Emotional Environment of Institutions on Self- Concept of Students at Elementary Level <p><em>The study's aim was to investigate&nbsp;the relationship between the socio-emotional environment of educational institutions at&nbsp;elementary school student’s self-concept.</em>&nbsp;<em>Identifying the relationship between students' self-concept and the socio-emotional environment at school was the study's major objective. It was correlational in nature, and data was collected using a survey approach. The teachers who taught fourth- and fifth-grade children in Tehsil Rawalpindi's public elementary schools were the study's target group.</em> <em>200 teachers from 40 different schools made up the sample, which was selected through the multi-stage random sampling method.</em> <em>The data were collected, based on a five-point&nbsp;Likert scale questionnaire. The collected data were analyzed using suitable statistical techniques,</em> <em>to measure the significance of responses, using statistics like frequency, percentages, and Pearson's Product Moment Correlation Coefficient. The researcher concluded that there was a strong relationship found between&nbsp;Students' self-concept and the school's environment.</em> <em>It has been observed that students' self-concept was high when the school provided a strong socio-emotional environment. It is recommended that there is much need for creating awareness among stakeholders, teachers, and parents. Because it is necessary to develop the personality of children by providing them with a good socio-emotional environment.</em><em>. Violence prevention in schools may also help in raising the socio-emotional environment of the school and it will enhance the self-concept of students. Every child has the right to be protected from harm and to be spared from inhuman or degrading punishments.&nbsp;It is the responsibility of teachers and parents to build positive self-concepts among children as it is integral to emotional well-being as well as associated with academic success.</em></p> Ruqaia Koser, Dr. Muhammad Arshad Dahar, Dr.Uzma Batool Copyright (c) 2023 Research Journal of Social Sciences and Economics Review Fri, 31 Mar 2023 00:00:00 +0000 The Positive Thinking in Shelley’s Poem Ode to the West Wind: A Critical Discourse Analysis <p><em>Positive thinking is mirrored in Shelley's poem ‘Ode to the West Wind’. It is certain that positive thinking is echoed in Shelley's poem ‘Ode to the West Wind’. It is the conviction that decent effects will occur and that his struggles will be honored with victory. It is grounded on hope, sanguinity, and the faith that hard work is never squandered. The aim of the study was to critically analyze the poem in terms of positive thinking. The main line of this poem is [When winter comes, spring leaves? This last line of the stanza of Ode to the West Wind best compares the poet himself to the autumn forest when the trees die in the dark and gloomy winter. This study asks what is the main message of Ode to the West Wind for mankind. The procedure is standard. The unit of analysis is Shelley's poem Ode to the West Wind. A critical discourse analysis was chosen as the unit of analysis. It turns out that the poem Ode to the West Wind is a trumpet of the powers of hope to things of destruction, almost hampered by the heavy burden of social oppression and oppression. It is also mentioned that one should not despair completely. He must have constant faith in the scheme of nature - that after every night there is a bright fresh morning.</em></p> Syeda Laila Saeed, Sawaira Idris, Dr. Muhammad Idris Copyright (c) 2023 Research Journal of Social Sciences and Economics Review Fri, 31 Mar 2023 00:00:00 +0000