The Analysis of Teaching Democratic Values at Secondary Level in District Sargodha

  • Shabana Zahoor University of Sargodha
  • Ashfaque Ahmad Shah Assistant Professor, Department of Education, University of Sargodha
  • Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Professor, University of Sargodha
Keywords: Democratic Values, the Desired Level, the Existing Level


Democratic education and administration in educational institutes play a significant role in building a democratic society. The focus of the current study was to examine the existing and desired level of teaching democratic values at the secondary level. A convergent mixed methods design was used in phase one. All secondary school heads, teachers, and students were constituted as the population of the study. The sample was selected through multistage sampling stage Twenty-eight (28) schools (4 from each Tehsil) were selected through stratified sampling. One school was taken from each stratum: Urban Female, Rural Female, Urban Male, and Rural Male. One headteacher, three teachers, and 25 students from each sampled school were selected conveniently. There were 28 heads, 84 teachers, and 704 students selected conveniently as a sample. Three instruments were used in this study; two self-developed questionnaires consisted of 26 items, one for secondary level students and the second for secondary school teachers to collect quantitative data. The value of Cronbach's Alpha (0.89) showed that the instruments were highly reliable. The third instrument was an interview schedule consisted of five questions. Analysis of the data showed that the desired level of teaching democratic values and its sub-values is significantly greater than the existing level of teaching democratic values. It leads to the conclusion that there is more need to teach democratic values and their sub-values at secondary level students. Based on the findings of the study it was recommended that Curriculum Development committees of Pakistan may suggest a separate course for teaching democratic values at the secondary level

How to Cite
Shabana Zahoor, Ashfaque Ahmad Shah, & Dr. Muhammad Sarwar. (2021). The Analysis of Teaching Democratic Values at Secondary Level in District Sargodha. Research Journal of Social Sciences and Economics Review, 2(2), 120-132.