Ideological Representations of Muslims in Hollywood Movie ‘The Kingdom’: A Study of Critical Discourse Analysis

  • Aasia Nusrat Assistant Professor, COMSATS University, Lahore
  • Farah Kashif Assistant Professor, University of South Asia, Lahore
  • Arfa Aemen MS Scholar, COMSATS University, Lahore
Keywords: CDA, Hollywood Cinema, Terrorism, Fairclough’s 3D Model


The significance of movies in information dissemination and ideological creation through language is undeniable. This study aims to investigate how Hollywood movies and documentaries depict Muslims. Specifically, this study examines the different forms of language expressions of Muslims based on the film directors' and writers’ descriptions and justification for their actions and beliefs. This study also explores ‘The Kingdom’, a movie produced after the 9/11 twin tower attack. Critical discourse analysis a research tool used to analyze the movie content. This movie is a terrorism genre, where Muslims have negative roles and are depicted as terrorists. The 3D model of Fairclough is utilized to reveal the ideological manipulations and representations of Muslims in Hollywood movies. Also, the three levels of this model, namely, descriptive, discursive, and social practices, are used to analyze the text on each level independently. Results show that terrorism discourse, which tags Muslims as terrorists, is embedded in the text. Muslims are depicted and labeled as terrorists through latent ideologies and the use of manipulated language, which is an example of their biased representation in Hollywood movies. When the media internationally draw a negative coverage and an exaggerated picture towards Muslim, refining, and drawing the true side of the picture is extremely difficult.

How to Cite
Aasia Nusrat, Farah Kashif, & Arfa Aemen. (2020). Ideological Representations of Muslims in Hollywood Movie ‘The Kingdom’: A Study of Critical Discourse Analysis. Research Journal of Social Sciences and Economics Review (RJSSER), 1(3), 63-71.