Education: Developing a Counter Hegemony against the Terrorist Ideology
This article aimed to analyze Antonio Gramsci's concepts of Cultural Hegemony and Counter Hegemony in the context of Terrorist Ideology and the US War on Terrorism. Using qualitative analysis, it was examined how educational institutions play a pivotal role in enforcing or preventing an ideology from penetrating public life and changing its course in a war for hegemony. Violent ideologies seep through societies and push them into chaos. The war on terrorism is an effort to establish US hegemony. Gramsci's philosophy of passive revolution can be used to eradicate extremist beliefs and cultural and social tensions within society. The term "indoctrination" has a negative connotation attached to it. Still, it can be used in a very positive way to ingrain impartiality and democratic values in the minds of our youth. The conclusion drawn from this research showed that education based on political awareness is required to unmask the hegemonic narratives that sustain inequities and violence. Counter-hegemony can teach young minds to accept the plurality of perspectives reflected by fellow humans with an open heart and mind. It further proved that Pakistan needs to develop a counter-hegemony or a Passive Revolution to fight the threat of religion-based violence.
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